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What happens if I overdose Ofloxacin?
Contact 1-800-222-1222 (the American Association of Poison Control Centers), your local, or emergency room immediately. Symptoms may include facial swelling and numbness; hot and cold flushes; mild to moderate disorientation; slurring of speech.
Proper storage of ofloxacin:
Store ofloxacin below 86 degrees F (30 degrees C). Store in a tightly closed container. Store away from heat, moisture, and light. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep ofloxacin out of the reach of children and away from pets.
Overdose of Ofloxacin in details
Information on overdosage with Ofloxacin is limited. One incident of accidental overdosage has been reported. In this case, an adult female received 3 grams of Ofloxacin intravenously over 45 minutes. A blood sample obtained 15 minutes after the completion of the infusion revealed an Ofloxacin level of 39.3 mcg/mL. In 7 h, the level had fallen to 16.2 mcg/mL, and by 24 h to 2.7 mcg/mL. During the infusion, the patient developed drowsiness, nausea, dizziness, hot and cold flushes, subjective facial swelling and numbness, slurring of speech, and mild to moderate disorientation. All complaints except the dizziness subsided within 1 h after discontinuation of the infusion. The dizziness, most bothersome while standing, resolved in approximately 9 h. Laboratory testing reportedly revealed no clinically significant changes in routine parameters in this patient.
In the event of an acute overdose, the stomach should be emptied. The patient should be observed and appropriate hydration maintained. Ofloxacin is not efficiently removed by hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis.
What should I avoid while taking Ofloxacin?
You may be taking certain other medicines that should not be taken at the same time as ofloxacin. Avoid taking the following medicines within 2 hours before or after you take ofloxacin. These other medicines can make ofloxacin much less effective when taken at the same time:
antacids that contain calcium, magnesium, or aluminum (such as Amphojel, Di-Gel Maalox, Milk of Magnesia, Mylanta, Pepcid Complete, Rolaids, Rulox, Tums, and others), or the ulcer medicine sucralfate (Carafate);
didanosine (Videx) powder or chewable tablets;
vitamin or mineral supplements that contain aluminum, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc.
Avoid exposure to sunlight or tanning beds. Ofloxacin can make you sunburn more easily. Wear protective clothing and use sunscreen (SPF 30 or higher) when you are outdoors. Call your doctor if you have severe burning, redness, itching, rash, or swelling after being in the sun.
Antibiotic medicines can cause diarrhea, which may be a sign of a new infection. If you have diarrhea that is watery or bloody, stop taking ofloxacin and call your doctor. Do not use anti-diarrhea medicine unless your doctor tells you to.
Ofloxacin may impair your thinking or reactions. Be careful if you drive or do anything that requires you to be alert.
Disabling and Potentially Irreversible Serious Adverse Reactions Including Tendinitis and Tendon Rupture, Peripheral Neuropathy, and Central Nervous System Effects:
Fluoroquinolones, including Ofloxacin, have been associated with disabling and potentially irreversible serious adverse reactions from different body systems that can occur together in the same patient. Commonly seen adverse reactions include tendinitis, tendon rupture, arthralgia, myalgia, peripheral neuropathy, and central nervous system effects (hallucinations, anxiety, depression, insomnia, severe headaches, and confusion). These reactions can occur within hours to weeks after starting Ofloxacin. Patients of any age or without pre-existing risk factors have experienced these adverse reactions
Discontinue Ofloxacin immediately at the first signs or symptoms of any serious adverse reaction. In addition, avoid the use of fluoroquinolones, including Ofloxacin, in patients who have experienced any of these serious adverse reactions associated with fluoroquinolones.
Tendinitis and Tendon Rupture:
Fluoroquinolones, including Ofloxacin, have been associated with an increased risk of tendinitis and tendon rupture in all ages. This adverse reaction most frequently involves the Achilles tendon, and rupture of the Achilles tendon and has been reported with the rotator cuff (the shoulder), the hand, the biceps, the thumb, and other tendons. Tendinitis or tendon rupture can occur within hours or days of starting Ofloxacin, or as long as several months after completion of fluoroquinolone therapy. Tendinitis and tendon rupture can occur bilaterally.
The risk of developing fluoroquinolone-associated tendinitis and tendon rupture is increased in patients over 60 years of age, in those taking corticosteroid drugs, and in patients with kidney, heart or lung transplants. Other factors that may independently increase the risk of tendon rupture include strenuous physical activity, renal failure, and previous tendon disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis.
Tendinitis and tendon rupture have been reported in patients taking fluoroquinolones who do not have the above risk factors.
Discontinue Ofloxacin immediately if the patient experiences pain, swelling, inflammation or rupture of a tendon. Avoid fluoroquinolones, including Ofloxacin, in patients who have a history of tendon disorders or have experienced tendinitis or tendon rupture. Patients should be advised to rest at the first sign of tendinitis or tendon rupture, and to contact their healthcare provider regarding changing to a non-quinolone antimicrobial drug.
Fluoroquinolones, including Ofloxacin, have been associated with an increased risk of peripheral neuropathy. Cases of sensory or sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy affecting small and/or large axons resulting in paresthesias, hypoesthesias, dysesthesias and weakness have been reported in patients receiving fluoroquinolones, including Ofloxacin. Symptoms may occur soon after initiation of norfloxacin and may be irreversible in some patients.
Discontinue Ofloxacin immediately if the patient experiences symptoms of peripheral neuropathy including pain, burning, tingling, numbness, and/or weakness, or other alterations in sensations including light touch, pain, temperature, position sense and vibratory sensation, and/or motor strength in order to minimize the development of an irreversible condition. Avoid fluoroquinolones, including Ofloxacin, in patients who have previously experienced peripheral neuropathy.
Central Nervous System Effects:
Fluoroquinolones, including Ofloxacin, have been associated with an increased risk of central nervous system (CNS) effects, including convulsions, increased intracranial pressure (including pseudotumor cerebri), and toxic psychoses. Quinolones may also cause central nervous system (CNS) stimulation which may lead to tremors, restlessness, lightheadedness, confusion, and hallucinations. If these reactions occur in patients receiving Ofloxacin, the drug should be discontinued and appropriate measures instituted.
The effects of Ofloxacin on brain function or on the electrical activity of the brain have not been tested. Therefore, until more information becomes available, Ofloxacin, like all other quinolones, should be used with caution in patients with known or suspected CNS disorders, such as severe cerebral arteriosclerosis, epilepsy, and other factors which predispose to seizures.
Exacerbation of Myasthenia Gravis:
Fluoroquinolones, including Ofloxacin, have neuromuscular blocking activity and may exacerbate muscle weakness in persons with myasthenia gravis. Postmarketing serious adverse events, including deaths and requirement for ventilatory support, have been associated with fluoroquinolone use in persons with myasthenia gravis. Avoid Ofloxacin in patients with known history of myasthenia gravis.
THE SAFETY AND EFFICACY OF Ofloxacin IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS AND ADOLESCENTS (UNDER THE AGE OF 18 YEARS), PREGNANT WOMEN, AND LACTATING WOMEN HAVE NOT BEEN ESTABLISHED.
In the immature rat, the oral administration of Ofloxacin at 5 to 16 times the recommended maximum human dose based on mg/kg or 1 to 3 times based on mg/m 2 increased the incidence and severity of osteochondrosis. The lesions did not regress after 13 weeks of drug withdrawal.
Other quinolones also produce similar erosions in the weight-bearing joints and other signs of arthropathy in immature animals of various species.
Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity and/or anaphylactic reactions have been reported in patients receiving therapy with quinolones, including Ofloxacin. These reactions often occur following the first dose. Some reactions have been accompanied by cardiovascular collapse, hypotension/shock, seizure, loss of consciousness, tingling, angioedema (including tongue, laryngeal, throat, or facial edema/swelling), airway obstruction (including bronchospasm, shortness of breath, and acute respiratory distress), dyspnea, urticaria, itching, and other serious skin reactions. This drug should be discontinued immediately at the first appearance of a skin rash or any other sign of hypersensitivity. Serious acute hypersensitivity reactions may require treatment with epinephrine and other resuscitative measures, including oxygen, intravenous fluids, antihistamines, corticosteroids, pressor amines, and airway management, as clinically indicated.
Other serious and sometimes fatal events, some due to hypersensitivity, and some due to uncertain etiology, have been reported rarely in patients receiving therapy with quinolones, including Ofloxacin. These events may be severe and generally occur following the administration of multiple doses. Clinical manifestations may include one or more of the following:
- fever, rash, or severe dermatologic reactions (e.g., toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome);
- vasculitis; arthralgia; myalgia; serum sickness;
- allergic pneumonitis;
- interstitial nephritis; acute renal insufficiency or failure;
- hepatitis; jaundice; acute hepatic necrosis or failure;
- anemia, including hemolytic and aplastic; thrombocytopenia, including thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura; leukopenia; agranulocytosis; pancytopenia; and/or other hematologic abnormalities.
The drug should be discontinued immediately at the first appearance of skin rash, jaundice, or any other sign of hypersensitivity and supportive measures instituted.
Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including Ofloxacin tablets, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.
C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.
If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.
Ofloxacin has not been shown to be effective in the treatment of syphilis.
Antimicrobial agents used in high doses for short periods of time to treat gonorrhea may mask or delay the symptoms of incubating syphilis. All patients with gonorrhea should have a serologic test for syphilis at the time of diagnosis. Patients treated with Ofloxacin for gonorrhea should have a follow-up serologic test for syphilis after three months and, if positive, treatment with an appropriate antimicrobial should be instituted.
What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking Ofloxacin?
Some medical conditions may interact with ofloxacin. Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you have any medical conditions, especially if any of the following apply to you:
- if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding
- if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement
- if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances
- if you have diabetes, liver problems, or a recent heart attack
- if you or a family member have heart problems (eg, angina), irregular heartbeat (eg, QT prolongation), fast or slow heartbeat, or low potassium levels
- if you have Alzheimer disease, hardening in the arteries in the brain, seizures, increased pressure on the brain, or another central nervous system disorder
- if you have a history of joint or tendon problems; rheumatoid arthritis; kidney problems or decreased kidney function; or a heart, kidney, or lung transplant
- if your skin is sensitive to sunlight
Some MEDICINES MAY INTERACT with ofloxacin. Tell your health care provider if you are taking any other medicines, especially any of the following:
- Antiarrhythmics (eg, amiodarone, disopyramide, dofetilide, quinidine, sotalol), cisapride, diuretics (eg, furosemide, hydrochlorothiazide), macrolide or ketolide antibiotics (eg, erythromycin, telithromycin), medicines for mental or mood disorders, medicines that may affect your heartbeat, phenothiazines (eg, chlorpromazine), or tricyclic antidepressants (eg, amitriptyline) because the risk of serious side effects, including irregular heartbeat and other heart problems, may be increased. Check with your doctor or pharmacist if you are unsure if any of your medicines may affect your heartbeat
- Corticosteroids (eg, prednisone) because the risk of tendon problems may be increased
- Foscarnet, NSAIDs (eg, ibuprofen), or tramadol because the risk of seizures may be increased
- Insulin or other medicines for diabetes (eg, glipizide) because the risk of low blood sugar may be increased
- Anticoagulants (eg, warfarin), procainamide, or theophylline because the risk of their side effects may be increased by ofloxacin
- Live typhoid vaccine because its effectiveness may be decreased by ofloxacin
- Aluminum salts (eg, aluminum hydroxide), iron salts (oral) (eg, ferrous sulfate), or magnesium salts (eg, magnesium hydroxide) because they may decrease ofloxacin's effectiveness. Take ofloxacin 2 hours before or 2 hours after these medicines to offset this effect
This may not be a complete list of all interactions that may occur. Ask your health care provider if ofloxacin may interact with other medicines that you take. Check with your health care provider before you start, stop, or change the dose of any medicine.
Prescribing Ofloxacin tablets in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.
Adequate hydration of patients receiving Ofloxacin should be maintained to prevent the formation of a highly concentrated urine.
Administer Ofloxacin with caution in the presence of renal or hepatic insufficiency/impairment. In patients with known or suspected renal or hepatic insufficiency/impairment, careful clinical observation and appropriate laboratory studies should be performed prior to and during therapy since elimination of Ofloxacin may be reduced. In patients with impaired renal function (creatinine clearance ≤ 50 mg/mL), alteration of the dosage regimen is necessary.
Moderate to severe photosensitivity/phototoxicity reactions, the latter of which may manifest as exaggerated sunburn reactions (e.g., burning, erythema, exudation, vesicles, blistering, edema) involving areas exposed to light (typically the face, “V” area of the neck, extensor surfaces of the forearms, dorsa of the hands), can be associated with the use of quinolones after sun or UV light exposure. Therefore, excessive exposure to these sources of light should be avoided. Drug therapy should be discontinued if photosensitivity/phototoxicity occurs.
As with other quinolones, Ofloxacin should be used with caution in any patient with a known or suspected CNS disorder that may predispose to seizures or lower the seizure threshold (e.g., severe cerebral arteriosclerosis, epilepsy) or in the presence of other risk factors that may predispose to seizures or lower the seizure threshold (e.g., certain drug therapy, renal dysfunction).
A possible interaction between oral hypoglycemic drugs (e.g., glyburide/glibenclamide) or with insulin and fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agents have been reported resulting in a potentiation of the hypoglycemic action of these drugs. The mechanism for this interaction is not known. If a hypoglycemic reaction occurs in a patient being treated with Ofloxacin, discontinue Ofloxacin immediately and consult a physician.
As with any potent drug, periodic assessment of organ system functions, including renal, hepatic, and hematopoietic, is advisable during prolonged therapy.
Torsades de Pointes
Some quinolones, including Ofloxacin, have been associated with prolongation of the QT interval on the electrocardiogram and infrequent cases of arrhythmia. Rare cases of torsade de pointes have been spontaneously reported during postmarketing surveillance in patients receiving quinolones, including Ofloxacin. Ofloxacin should be avoided in patients with known prolongation of the QT interval, patients with uncorrected hypokalemia, and patients receiving Class IA (quinidine, procainamide), or Class III (amiodarone, sotalol) antiarrhythmic agents.
Information for Patients
Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide).
Serious Adverse Reactions
Advise patients to stop taking Ofloxacin if they experience an adverse reaction and to call their healthcare provider for advice on completing the full course of treatment with another antibacterial drug.
Inform patients of the following serious adverse reactions that have been associated with NOROXIN or other fluoroquinolone use:
- Disabling and potentially irreversible serious adverse reactions that may occur together: Inform patients that disabling and potentially irreversible serious adverse reactions, includingtendinitis and tendon rupture, peripheral neuropathies, and central nervous system effects, havebeen associated with use of Ofloxacin and may occur together in the same patient. Inform patients to stop taking Ofloxacin immediately if they experience an adverse reaction and to calltheir healthcare provider.
- Tendon Disorders: Instruct patients to contact their healthcare provider if they experience pain, swelling, or inflammation of a tendon, or weakness or inability to use one of their joints; rest and refrain from exercise; and discontinue Ofloxacin treatment. The risk of severe tendon disorders with fluoroquinolones is higher in older patients usually over 60 years of age, in patients taking corticosteroid drugs, and in patients with kidney, heart or lung transplants.
- Peripheral Neuropathies: Inform patients that peripheral neuropathies have been associated with the use of Ofloxacin, that symptoms may occur soon after initiation of therapy and may be irreversible. If symptoms of peripheral neuropathy including pain, burning, tingling, numbness, and/or weakness develop, patients should immediately discontinue Ofloxacin and contact their physicians.
- Central nervous system effects (for example, convulsions, dizziness, lightheadedness, increased intracranial pressure): Inform patients that convulsions have been reported in patients receiving fluoroquinolones, including Ofloxacin. Instruct patients to notify their physician before taking this drug if they have a history of convulsions. Inform patients that they should know how they react to Ofloxacin before they operate an automobile or machinery or engage in other activities requiring mental alertness and coordination. Instruct patients to notify their physician if persistent headache with or without blurred vision occurs.
- Myasthenia gravis: Inform patients that fluoroquinolones like Ofloxacin may cause worsening of myasthenia gravis symptoms, including muscle weakness and breathing problems. Patients should call their healthcare provider right away if you have any worsening muscle weakness or breathing problems.
- Hypersensitivity Reactions: Inform patients that Ofloxacin can cause hypersensitivity reactions, even following a single dose, and to discontinue the drug at the first sign of a skin rash, hives or other skin reactions, a rapid heartbeat, difficulty in swallowing or breathing, any swelling suggesting angioedema (for example, swelling of the lips, tongue, face, tightness of the throat, hoarseness), or other symptoms of an allergic reaction.
- Hepatotoxicity: Inform patients that severe hepatotoxicity (including acute hepatitis and fatal events) has been reported in patients taking Ofloxacin. Instruct patients to inform their physician if they experience any signs or symptoms of liver injury including: loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, fever, weakness, tiredness, right upper quadrant tenderness, itching, yellowing of the skin and eyes, light colored bowel movements or dark colored urine.
- Diarrhea: Diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibiotics which usually ends when the antibiotic is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibiotics, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose of the antibiotic. If this occurs, instruct patients to contact their physician as soon as possible.
- Photosensitivity/Phototoxicity: Inform patients that photosensitivity/phototoxicity has been reported in patients receiving fluoroquinolones. Patients should minimize or avoid exposure to natural or artificial sunlight (tanning beds or UVA/B treatment) while taking quinolones. If patients need to be outdoors while using quinolones, they should wear loosefitting clothes that protect skin from sun exposure and discuss other sun protection measures with their physician. If a sunburn-like reaction or skin eruption occurs, patients should contact their physician.
Patients should be advised:
- to drink fluids liberally.
- that mineral supplements, vitamins with iron or minerals, calcium-, aluminum- or magnesium based antacids, sucralfate or didanosine, chewable/buffered tablets or the pediatric powder for oral solution should not be taken within the two-hour period before or within the two-hour period after taking Ofloxacin
- that Ofloxacin can be taken without regard to meals;
- Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including Ofloxacin tablets should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When Ofloxacin tablets are prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by Ofloxacin tablets or other antibacterial drugs in the future.;
- that if they are diabetic and are being treated with insulin or an oral hypoglycemic drug, to discontinue Ofloxacin immediately if a hypoglycemic reaction occurs and consult a physician;
- that convulsions have been reported in patients taking quinolones, including Ofloxacin, and to notify their physician before taking this drug if there is a history of this condition;
- to inform their physician of any personal or family history of QTc prolongation or proarrhythmic conditions such as hypokalemia, bradycardia, or recent myocardial ischemia; if they are taking any class IA (quinidine, procainamide), or class III (amiodarone, sotalol) antiarrhythmic agents. Patients should notify their physicians if they have any symptoms of prolongation of the QTc interval including prolonged heart palpitations or a loss of consciousness.
Antacids, Sucralfate, Metal Cations, Multivitamins:
Quinolones form chelates with alkaline earth and transition metal cations. Administration of quinolones with antacids containing calcium, magnesium, or aluminum, with sucralfate, with divalent or trivalent cations such as iron, or with multivitamins containing zinc or with didanosine, chewable/buffered tablets or the pediatric powder for oral solution may substantially interfere with the absorption of quinolones resulting in systemic levels considerably lower than desired. These agents should not be taken within the two-hour period before or within the two-hour period after Ofloxacin administration.
Interactions between Ofloxacin and caffeine have not been detected.
Cimetidine has demonstrated interference with the elimination of some quinolones. This interference has resulted in significant increases in half-life and AUC of some quinolones. The potential for interaction between Ofloxacin and cimetidine has not been studied.
Elevated serum levels of cyclosporine have been reported with concomitant use of cyclosporine with some other quinolones. The potential for interaction between Ofloxacin and cyclosporine has not been studied.
Drugs Metabolized by Cytochrome P450 Enzymes:
Most quinolone antimicrobial drugs inhibit cytochrome P450 enzyme activity. This may result in a prolonged half-life for some drugs that are also metabolized by this system (e.g., cyclosporine, theophylline/methylxanthines, warfarin) when coadministered with quinolones. The extent of this inhibition varies among different quinolones.
Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs:
The concomitant administration of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with a quinolone, including Ofloxacin, may increase the risk of CNS stimulation and convulsive seizures.
The concomitant use of probenecid with certain other quinolones has been reported to affect renal tubular secretion. The effect of probenecid on the elimination of Ofloxacin has not been studied.
Steady-state theophylline levels may increase when Ofloxacin and theophylline are administered concurrently. As with other quinolones, concomitant administration of Ofloxacin may prolong the half-life of theophylline, elevate serum theophylline levels, and increase the risk of theophylline-related adverse reactions. Theophylline levels should be closely monitored and theophylline dosage adjustments made, if appropriate, when Ofloxacin is co administered. Adverse reactions (including seizures) may occur with or without an elevation in the serum theophylline level.
Some quinolones have been reported to enhance the effects of the oral anticoagulant warfarin or its derivatives. Therefore, if a quinolone antimicrobial is administered concomitantly with warfarin or its derivatives, the prothrombin time or other suitable coagulation test should be closely monitored.
Antidiabetic Agents (e.g., Insulin, Glyburide/Glibenclamide):
Since disturbances of blood glucose, including hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia, have been reported in patients treated concurrently with quinolones and an antidiabetic agent, careful monitoring of blood glucose is recommended when these agents are used concomitantly.
Interaction With Laboratory or Diagnostic Testing
Some quinolones, including Ofloxacin, may produce false-positive urine screening results for opiates using commercially available immunoassay kits. Confirmation of positive opiate screens by more specific methods may be necessary.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Long-term studies to determine the carcinogenic potential of Ofloxacin have not been conducted.
Ofloxacin was not mutagenic in the Ames bacterial test, in vitro and in vivo cytogenetic assay, sister chromatid exchange (Chinese Hamster and Human Cell Lines), unscheduled DNA Repair (UDS) using human fibroblasts, dominant lethal assays, or mouse micronucleus assay. Ofloxacin was positive in the UDS test using rat hepatocytes and Mouse Lymphoma Assay.
Pregnancy category C
Ofloxacin has not been shown to have any teratogenic effects at oral doses as high as 810 mg/kg/day (11 times the recommended maximum human dose based on mg/m 2 or 50 times based on mg/kg) and 160 mg/kg/day (4 times the recommended maximum human dose based on mg/m 2 or 10 times based on mg/kg) when administered to pregnant rats and rabbits, respectively. Additional studies in rats with oral doses up to 360 mg/kg/day (5 times the recommended maximum human dose based on mg/m 2 or 23 times based on mg/kg) demonstrated no adverse effect on late fetal development, labor, delivery, lactation, neonatal viability, or growth of the newborn. Doses equivalent to 50 and 10 times the recommended maximum human dose of Ofloxacin (based on mg/kg) were fetotoxic (i.e., decreased fetal body weight and increased fetal mortality) in rats and rabbits, respectively. Minor skeletal variations were reported in rats receiving doses of 810 mg/kg/day, which is more than 10 times higher than the recommended maximum human dose based on mg/m 2.
There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Ofloxacin should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
In lactating females, a single oral 200 mg dose of Ofloxacin resulted in concentrations of Ofloxacin in milk that were similar to those found in plasma. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions from Ofloxacin in nursing infants, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients and adolescents below the age of 18 years have not been established. Ofloxacin causes arthropathy (arthrosis) and osteochondrosis in juvenile animals of several species.
Geriatric patients are at increased risk for developing severe tendon disorders including tendon rupture when being treated with a fluoroquinolone such as Ofloxacin. This risk is further increased in patients receiving concomitant corticosteroid therapy. Tendinitis or tendon rupture can involve the Achilles, hand, shoulder, or other tendon sites and can occur during or after completion of therapy; cases occurring up to several months after fluoroquinolone treatment have been reported. Caution should be used when prescribing Ofloxacin to elderly patients especially those on corticosteroids. Patients should be informed of this potential side effect and advised to discontinue Ofloxacin and contact their healthcare provider if any symptoms of tendinitis or tendon rupture occur.
In phase 2/3 clinical trials with Ofloxacin, 688 patients (14.2%) were ≥ 65 years of age. Of these, 436 patients (9.0%) were between the ages of 65 and 74 and 252 patients (5.2%) were 75 years or older. There was no apparent difference in the frequency or severity of adverse reactions in elderly adults compared with younger adults. The pharmacokinetic properties of Ofloxacin in elderly subjects are similar to those in younger subjects. Drug absorption appears to be unaffected by age. Dosage adjustment is necessary for elderly patients with impaired renal function (creatinine clearance rate ≤ 50 mL/min) due to reduced clearance of Ofloxacin. In comparative studies, the frequency and severity of most drug-related nervous system events in patients ≥ 65 years of age were comparable for Ofloxacin and control drugs. The only differences identified were an increase in reports of insomnia (3.9% vs 1.5%) and headache (4.7% vs 1.8%) with Ofloxacin. It is important to note that these geriatric safety data are extracted from 44 comparative studies where the adverse reaction information from 20 different controls (other antibiotics or placebo) were pooled for comparison with Ofloxacin. The clinical significance of such a comparison is not clear.
Elderly patients may be more sensitive to drug-associated effects on the QT interval. Therefore, precaution should be taken when using Ofloxacin with concomitant drugs that can result in prolongation of the QT interval (e.g., Class IA or Class III antiarrhythmics) or in patients with risk factors for Torsade de pointes (e.g., known QT prolongation, uncorrected hypokalemia).
What happens if I miss a dose of Ofloxacin?
Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. Skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next scheduled dose. Do not take extra medicine to make up the missed dose.