Acnetoin Pregnancy

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Pregnancy of Acnetoin in details

Pregnancy is always a special situation where every action or side effect of the drug varies when compared to a situation of a non-pregnant patient. It is not only because the pregnant woman's metabolism differs due to the hormonal and other changes happened to her, but also because every medicine or its metabolite passes to the baby and shows its action there. The only thing is, be cautious, attentive and well supervised when you take any single drug in pregnancy. The interactions can vary in pregnancy, and the dosage may differ as well. Strict supervision of the Physician is mandatory.

Acnetoin crosses the placenta in small amounts. In one study of 11 patients who had detectable Acnetoin levels in the serum, 4 infants did not have detectable cord concentrations. The cord concentrations in the remaining 7 infants generally ranged from 1% to 6% of that found in maternal serum. A case of left absence-of-tibia syndrome was reported in an infant whose mother had received Acnetoin, ethisterone, and ethinyl estradiol at approximately 4 weeks gestation. Acnetoin has been used prior to delivery in women colonized with group B beta-hemolytic streptococcus to reduce infant colonization. No adverse events in the infants have been reported. Acnetoin has also been used to treat genital Mycoplasma infection during the first trimester without evidence of fetal adverse effects. Pregnant women receiving Acnetoin estolate may be more prone to hepatotoxicity. In one study of women receiving Acnetoin estolate between the 22nd and 32nd week of pregnancy, 10% showed abnormal levels of SGOT.

Acnetoin has been assigned to pregnancy category B by the FDA. Animal studies failed to reveal evidence of teratogenicity. There are no controlled data in human pregnancy. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention considers Acnetoin the drug of choice for treatment of Chlamydia infections in pregnant women. However, Acnetoin estolate is considered contraindicated because of drug-related hepatotoxicity. Acnetoin should only be given during pregnancy when need has been clearly established.

See references

Acnetoin breastfeeding

When a drug is taken when the patient is breast feeding, a part of the drug is secreted in her breast milk and is passed to the baby. The dosage of the medicine to mother and baby are different, and many drugs actions are side effects when you take them without a disease, and what if you the baby takes them without a disease? What if the drug is contraindicated in newborns, infants or children? So, breastfeeding is a very alarming situation when the mother is on medications. Ask your Physician or Pediatrician about the effect of the drug on the baby and how much is excreted in breast milk and if it harms the baby!

Acnetoin is excreted into human milk in small amounts. Acnetoin is considered compatible with breast-feeding by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

See references

References for pregnancy information

  1. Mahon BE, Rosenman MB, Kleiman MB "Maternal and infant use of Acnetoin and other macrolide antibiotics as risk factors for infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis." J Pediatr 139 (2001): 380-4
  2. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control "1993 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines." MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 42 (1993): 27-46
  3. "Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines 2002." MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 51(RR-6) (2002): 1-77
  4. Philipson A, Sabath LD, Charles D "Transplacental passage of Acnetoin and clindamycin." N Engl J Med 288 (1973): 1219-21
  5. Merenstein GB, Todd WA, Brown G, Yost CC, Luzier T "Group B beta-hemolytic streptococcus: randomized controlled treatment study at term." Obstet Gynecol 55 (1980): 315-8
  6. Easmon CS, Hastings MJ, Deeley J, Bloxham B, Rivers RP, Marwood R "The effect of intrapartum chemoprophylaxis on the vertical transmission of group B streptococci." Br J Obstet Gynaecol 90 (1983): 633-5
  7. Louik C, Werler MM, Mitchell AA "Acnetoin use during pregnancy in relation to pyloric stenosis." Am J Obstet Gynecol 186 (2002): 288-90
  8. "Product Information. ERYC (Acnetoin)." Parke-Davis, Morris Plains, NJ.
  9. Hussain N, Herson VC "Acnetoin use during pregnancy in relation to pyloric stenosis." Am J Obstet Gynecol 187(3 Pt 1) (2002): 821-2
  10. McCormack WM, George H, Donner A, et al. "Hepatotoxicity of Acnetoin estolate during pregnancy." Antimicrob Agents Chemother 12 (1977): 630-5
  11. Quinn PA, Shewchuk AB, Shuber J, et al. "Eficacy of antibiotic therapy in preventing spontaneous pregnancy loss among couples colonized with genital mycoplasms." Am J Obstet Gynecol 145 (1983): 239-44
  12. Jaffe P, Liberman MM, McFadyen I, Valman HB "Incidence of congenital limb-reduction deformities." Lancet 1 (1975): 526-7
  13. Kiefer L, Rubin A, McCoy JB, Foltz EL "The placental transfer of Acnetoin." Am J Obstet Gynecol 69 (1955): 174-7

References for breastfeeding information

  1. "Product Information. ERYC (Acnetoin)." Parke-Davis, Morris Plains, NJ.
  2. Roberts RJ, Blumer JL, Gorman RL, et al "American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Drugs: Transfer of drugs and other chemicals into human milk." Pediatrics 84 (1989): 924-36
  3. Committee on Drugs, 1992 to 1993 "The transfer of drugs and other chemicals into human milk." Pediatrics 93 (1994): 137-50



  1. DailyMed. "ASCORBIC ACID; BIOTIN; CYANOCOBALAMIN; DEXPANTHENOL; ERGOCALCIFEROL; FOLIC ACID; NIACINAMIDE; PHYTONADIONE; PYRIDOXINE HYDROCHLORIDE; RIBOFLAVIN 5'-PHOSPHATE SODIUM; THIAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE; VITAMIN A; VITAMIN E: DailyMed provides trustworthy information about marketed drugs in the United States. DailyMed is the official provider of FDA label information (package inserts).". (accessed September 17, 2018).
  2. DailyMed. "ERYTHROMYCIN: DailyMed provides trustworthy information about marketed drugs in the United States. DailyMed is the official provider of FDA label information (package inserts).". (accessed September 17, 2018).
  3. PubMed Health. "Niacinamide (On the skin): This section provide the link out information of drugs collectetd in PubMed Health. ". (accessed September 17, 2018).


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