What is Amphetamine Sulfate?
Amphetamine Sulfate is used to treat narcolepsy (sleep disorder). It is also used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It belongs to the group of medicines called central nervous system (CNS) stimulants.
Amphetamine Sulfate is also used for weight reduction in obese patients.
Amphetamine Sulfate works in the treatment of ADHD by increasing attention and decreasing restlessness in children and adults who are overactive, cannot concentrate for very long, or are easily distracted and impulsive. Amphetamine Sulfate is used as part of a total treatment program that also includes social, educational, and psychological treatment.
Amphetamine Sulfate is available only with a doctor's prescription.
Amphetamine Sulfate indications
Amphetamine Sulfate is indicated for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in pediatric patients 6 to 17 years of age.
How should I use Amphetamine Sulfate?
Use Amphetamine Sulfate as directed by your doctor. Check the label on the medicine for exact dosing instructions.
- Amphetamine Sulfate comes with an extra patient information sheet called a Medication Guide. Read it carefully. Read it again each time you get Amphetamine Sulfate refilled.
- Take Amphetamine Sulfate by mouth with or without food.
- Take your doses of Amphetamine Sulfate 4 to 6 hours apart unless your doctor tells you otherwise.
- Do not drink fruit juice at the same time that you take Amphetamine Sulfate. Certain fruit juices (eg, grapefruit, apple, orange) may decrease Amphetamine Sulfate's effectiveness.
- Take Amphetamine Sulfate on a regular schedule to get the most benefit from it. Taking Amphetamine Sulfate at the same time each day will help you remember to take it.
- If you miss a dose of Amphetamine Sulfate, take it as soon as possible. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not take 2 doses at once.
Ask your health care provider any questions you may have about how to use Amphetamine Sulfate.
Amphetamine Sulfate description
Amphetamines are non-catecholamine sympathomimetic amines with CNS stimulant activity. By mimicking the structures of the catecholamine neurotransmitters, noradrenaline and dopamine, amphetamines modulate monoamine release, reuptake, and signalling within the brain. Although "Amphetamine Sulfate" is used as a descriptor of its own structural class, Amphetamine Sulfate properly refers to a racemic free base composed of equal parts of its two optical antipodes: levo-Amphetamine Sulfate and dextro-Amphetamine Sulfate. Used in the past for the treatment of depression, stress, and for concentration improvement, it is currently available as a prescription drug for the treatment of attention hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and as an adjunct in the treatment of exogenous obesity. Amphetamine Sulfate is also available in a mixed salt/mixed enantiomer form (Adderall), where d-Amphetamine Sulfate and l-Amphetamine Sulfate are available in a ratio of 3:1. It is also available in a prodrug form as lisdexamfetamine.
Amphetamine Sulfate dosage
Prior to treating patients with Amphetamine Sulfate, assess for the presence of cardiac disease (i.e., perform a careful history, family history of sudden death or ventricular arrhythmia, and physical exam).
Assess the risk of abuse prior to prescribing and monitor for signs of abuse and dependence while on therapy. Maintain careful prescription records, educate patients about abuse, monitor for signs of abuse and overdose, and periodically re-evaluate the need for Amphetamine Sulfate use.
Administer Amphetamine Sulfate orally in the morning with or without food or liquid.
The recommended starting dose of Amphetamine Sulfate for patients 6 to 17 years of age is 5 mg once or twice daily. If necessary, administer an additional dose after 4 to 6 hours. Titrate the dosage in increments of 5 mg at weekly intervals until optimal response is obtained. Only in rare cases will it be necessary to exceed a total of 40 mg daily.
Where possible, drug administration should be interrupted occasionally to determine if there is a recurrence of behavioral symptoms sufficient to require continued therapy.
Amphetamine Sulfate should be administered at the lowest effective dosage and dosage should be individually adjusted.
Instruct the patient or caregiver on the following administration instructions:
- Do not remove the tablet from the blister pack until just prior to dosing. Do not store the tablet for future use.
- Use dry hands to open the blister.
- Remove the tablet by pushing it through the back of the foil-lined blister pack.
- As soon as the blister is opened, remove the tablet and place the tablet on the patient's tongue.
- Place the whole tablet on the tongue and allow it to disintegrate without chewing or crushing.
- The tablet will disintegrate in saliva so that it can be swallowed. No liquid is needed to take the tablet. The tablet can be actively moved around between the tongue and the roof of the mouth until it disintegrates.
Switching from Other Amphetamine Sulfate Products
Switching from EVEKEO to Amphetamine Sulfate can be done on a milligram-per-milligram basis.
When switching from other Amphetamine Sulfate products, discontinue treatment and titrate with Amphetamine Sulfate using the titration schedule above. Do not substitute for other Amphetamine Sulfate products on a milligram-per-milligram basis because of different Amphetamine Sulfate salt compositions and differing pharmacokinetic profiles.
Dosage Modifications due to Drug Interactions
Agents that alter urinary pH can impact urinary excretion and alter blood levels of Amphetamine Sulfate. Acidifying agents (e.g., ascorbic acid) decrease blood levels, while alkalinizing agents (e.g., sodium bicarbonate) increase blood levels. Adjust Amphetamine Sulfate dosage accordingly.
Amphetamine Sulfate interactions
Acidifying agents - Gastrointestinal acidifying agents (guanethidine,reserpine, glutamic acid HCl,ascorbic acid, fruit juices, etc.) lower absorption of amphetamines Urinary acidifying agents -(ammonium chloride, sodium acid phosphate, etc.) Increase the concentration of the ionized species of the Amphetamine Sulfate Primary excretion - Both Groups of agents lower blood levels and efficacy of amphetamines Adrenergic blockers - Adrenergic blockers are inhibited by amphetamines Alkalinizing agents -Gastrointestinal alkalinizing agents (sodium bicarbonate, etc.)increase absorption of amphetamines. Urinary alkalinizing agents (acetazolamide, some thiazides) increase the concentration of the non-ionized species of the Amphetamine Sulfate molecule, thereby decreasing urinary excretion. Both groups of agents increase blood levels and therefore potentate the actions of amphetamines Antidepressants, tricyclic - Adipans may enhance the activity of tricyclic or sympathomimetic agents; d-Amphetamine Sulfate with desipramine or protriptyline and possibly other tricyclics cause striking and sustained increases in the concentration of d-Amphetamine Sulfate in the brain; cardiovascular effects can be potentiated MAO inhibitors - MAO antidepressants, as well as a metabolite of furazolidone, slow Amphetamine Sulfate metabolism. This slowing potentiates amphetamines, increasing their effect on the release of norepinephrine and other monoamines from adrenergic nerve endings, this can cause headaches and other signs of hypertensive crisis. A variety of neurological toxic effects and malignant hyperpyrexia can occur, sometimes with fatal results Antihistamines - Adipans may counteract the sedative effect of antihistamines Antihypertensives - Adipans may antagonize the hypotensive effects of antihypertensives Chlorpromazine - Chlorpromazine blocks dopamine and norepinephrine receptors, thus inhibiting the central stimulant effects of amphetamines, and can be used to treat Amphetamine Sulfate poisoning Ethosuximide - Adipans may delay intestinal absorption of ethosuximide Haloperidol - Haloperidol blocks dopamine receptors, thus inhibiting the central stimulant effects of amphetamines Lithium carbonate - The anorectic and stimulatory effects of amphetamines may be inhibited by lithium carbonate Meperidine - Adipans pone the analgesic effect of meperidine Methenamine therapy - Urinary excretion of amphetamines is increased, and efficacy is reduced, by acidifying agents used in methenamine therapy Norepinephrine - Adipans enhance the adrenergic effect of norepinephrine Phenobarbital - Adipans may delay intestinal absorption of phenobarbital; co-administration of phenobarbital may produce a synergistic anticonvulsant action Phenytoin - Adipans may delay intestinal absorption of phenytoin; co-administration of phenytoin may produce a synergistic anticonvulsant action Propoxyphene - In cases of propoxyphene overdose, Amphetamine Sulfate CNS stimulation is potentiated and fatal convulsions can occur Veratrum alkaloids - Adipans inhibit the hypotensive effect of veratrum alkaloids Drug/Laboratory Test Interaction Adipans can cause a significant elevation in plasma corticosteroid levels. This increase is greatest in the evening Adipans may interfere with urinary steroid determinations.
Amphetamine Sulfate side effects
Applies to Amphetamine Sulfate: oral tablet
In addition to its needed effects, some unwanted effects may be caused by Amphetamine Sulfate. In the event that any of these side effects do occur, they may require medical attention.
Major Side Effects
You should check with your doctor immediately if any of these side effects occur when taking Amphetamine Sulfate:
- Seeing, hearing, or feeling things that are not there
- severe mental changes
- Blurred vision
- false or unusual sense of well-being
- fast, irregular, pounding, or racing heartbeat or pulse
- pounding in the ears
- shakiness in the legs, arms, hands, or feet
- slow or fast heartbeat
- trouble sleeping
- twitching, twisting, or uncontrolled repetitive movements of the tongue, lips, face, arms, or legs
- uncontrolled vocal outbursts or tics (uncontrolled repeated body movements)
If any of the following symptoms of overdose occur while taking Amphetamine Sulfate, get emergency help immediately:
Symptoms of overdose:
- Abdominal or stomach cramps
- dark-colored urine
- dizziness, faintness, or lightheadedness when getting up suddenly from a lying or sitting position
- muscle cramps or spasms
- muscle pain or stiffness
- unusual tiredness or weakness
Minor Side Effects
Some of the side effects that can occur with Amphetamine Sulfate may not need medical attention. As your body adjusts to the medicine during treatment these side effects may go away. Your health care professional may also be able to tell you about ways to reduce or prevent some of these side effects. If any of the following side effects continue, are bothersome or if you have any questions about them, check with your health care professional:
Incidence not known:
- Decreased interest in sexual intercourse
- difficulty having a bowel movement (stool)
- dry mouth
- hives or welts, itching, or skin rash
- inability to have or keep an erection
- loss in sexual ability, desire, drive, or performance
- loss of appetite
- redness of the skin
- unpleasant taste
- weight loss
Amphetamine Sulfate contraindications
Amphetamine Sulfate is contraindicated in patients:
- With known hypersensitivity to Amphetamine Sulfate, or other components of Amphetamine Sulfate. Hypersensitivity reactions such as angioedema and anaphylactic reactions have been reported in patients treated with other Amphetamine Sulfate products.
- Receiving concomitant treatment with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), or within 14 days following discontinuation of treatment with an MOAI (including MAOIs such as linezolid or intravenous methylene blue), because of an increased risk of hypertensive crisis.
Active ingredient matches for Amphetamine Sulfate:
- DailyMed. "AMPHETAMINE: DailyMed provides trustworthy information about marketed drugs in the United States. DailyMed is the official provider of FDA label information (package inserts).". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailyme... (accessed September 17, 2018).
- PubChem. "AMPHETAMINE". https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/com... (accessed September 17, 2018).
- DrugBank. "AMPHETAMINE". http://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00182 (accessed September 17, 2018).
ReviewsThe results of a survey conducted on ndrugs.com for Amphetamine Sulfate are given in detail below. The results of the survey conducted are based on the impressions and views of the website users and consumers taking Amphetamine Sulfate. We implore you to kindly base your medical condition or therapeutic choices on the result or test conducted by a physician or licensed medical practitioners.
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Information checked by Dr. Sachin Kumar, MD Pharmacology