Anfetamina Actions

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Actions of Anfetamina in details

infoThe action of the drug on the human body is called Pharmacodynamics in Medical terminology. To produce its effect and to change the pathological process that is happening the body and to reduce the symptom or cure the disease, the medicine has to function in a specific way. The changes it does to the body at cellular level gives the desired result of treating a disease. Drugs act by stimulating or inhibiting a receptor or an enzyme or a protein most of the times. Medications are produced in such a way that the ingredients target the specific site and bring about chemical changes in the body that can stop or reverse the chemical reaction which is causing the disease.
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Amphetamines stimulate the release of norepinephrine from central adrenergic receptors. At higher dosages, they cause release of dopamine from the mesocorticolimbic system and the nigrostriatal dopamine systems. Anfetamina may also act as a direct agonist on central 5-HT receptors and may inhibit monoamine oxidase (MAO). In the periphery, amphetamines are believed to cause the release of noradrenaline by acting on the adrenergic nerve terminals and alpha- and beta-receptors. Modulation of serotonergic pathways may contribute to the calming affect. The drug interacts with VMAT enzymes to enhance release of DA and 5-HT from vesicles. It may also directly cause the reversal of DAT and SERT.

How should I take Anfetamina?

infoAdministration of drug is important to know because the drug absorption and action varies depending on the route and time of administration of the drug. A medicine is prescribed before meals or after meals or along with meals. The specific timing of the drug intake about food is to increase its absorption and thus its efficacy. Few work well when taken in empty stomach and few medications need to be taken 1 or 2 hrs after the meal. A drug can be in the form of a tablet, a capsule which is the oral route of administration and the same can be in IV form which is used in specific cases. Other forms of drug administration can be a suppository in anal route or an inhalation route.

Using Anfetamina improperly can cause death or serious side effects on the heart.

Read all patient information, medication guides, and instruction sheets provided to you. Ask your doctor or pharmacist if you have any questions.

Follow all directions on your prescription label. Your doctor may occasionally change your dose to make sure you get the best results. Do not use Anfetamina in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended.

Anfetamina may be habit-forming. Never share Anfetamina with another person, especially someone with a history of drug abuse or addiction. Keep the medication in a place where others cannot get to it. Selling or giving away this medicine is against the law.

You may take Anfetamina with or without food. It is best to take this medicine first thing in the morning.

If your doctor changes your brand, strength, or type of stimulant medicine, your dosage needs may change. Use only the brand of Anfetamina your doctor has prescribed.

Shake the oral suspension (liquid) well just before you measure a dose. Measure liquid medicine with the dosing syringe provided, or with a special dose-measuring spoon or medicine cup. If you do not have a dose-measuring device, ask your pharmacist for one.

To take the orally disintegrating tablet (Adzenys XR-ODT):

  • Keep the tablet in its blister pack until you are ready to take it. Open the package and peel back the foil. Do not push a tablet through the foil or you may damage the tablet.

  • Use dry hands to remove the tablet and place it in your mouth.

  • Do not swallow the tablet whole. Allow it to dissolve in your mouth without chewing. If desired, you may drink liquid to help swallow the dissolved tablet.

While using this medicine, your doctor will need to check your progress at regular visits. Your heart rate, blood pressure, height and weight may also need to be checked often.

Anfetamina can cause unusual results with certain medical tests. Tell any doctor who treats you that you are using this medicine.

Store at room temperature away from moisture and heat. Keep the bottle tightly closed when not in use.

Keep track of the amount of medicine used from each new bottle. Anfetamina is a drug of abuse and you should be aware if anyone is using your medicine improperly or without a prescription.

Throw away unused or expired Anfetamina in a sealed container or bag. Ask your pharmacist where to locate a community pharmaceutical take back disposal program.

Anfetamina pharmacology

infoPharmacokinetics of a drug can be defined as what body does to the drug after it is taken. The therapeutic result of the medicine depends upon the Pharmacokinetics of the drug. It deals with the time taken for the drug to be absorbed, metabolized, the process and chemical reactions involved in metabolism and about the excretion of the drug. All these factors are essential to deciding on the efficacy of the drug. Based on these pharmacokinetic principles, the ingredients, the Pharmaceutical company decides dose and route of administration. The concentration of the drug at the site of action which is proportional to therapeutic result inside the body depends on various pharmacokinetic reactions that occur in the body.
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Mechanism of Action

Amphetamines are non-catecholamine sympathomimetic amines with central nervous system (CNS) stimulant activity. The mode of therapeutic action in ADHD is not known.

Pharmacodynamics

Amphetamines block the reuptake of norepinephrine and dopamine into the presynaptic neuron and increase the release of these monoamines into the extraneuronal space.

Anfetamina is a 1:1 racemic mixture of d- and l-Anfetamina. The l-isomer is more potent than the d-isomer in cardiovascular activity while the d-isomer is more potent than the l-isomer in causing CNS excitatory effects.

Pharmacokinetics

Anfetamina demonstrates linear pharmacokinetics over the dose range of 5 to 40 mg.

Absorption

Following a single-dose oral administration of Anfetamina 20 mg disintegrated/dissolved in the oral cavity in healthy subjects in a crossover study, exposures (Cmax and AUC) to d- and l-Anfetamina were comparable to that after administration of equal dose of immediate-release Anfetamina sulfate tablets (Evekeo) tablets swallowed intact with water.

Median (range) Tmax of d- and l-Anfetamina was reached at approximately 3.5 (2-8) hours and 3.0 (1 -6) hours after administration without water and with water, respectively.

Effect of Food

Administration of food (a high fat meal) does not affect the observed AUC and Cmax of d- and l-Anfetamina after single-dose oral administration of Anfetamina (20 mg) in healthy adults who allowed the tablet to be disintegrated/dissolved in their oral cavity prior to swallowing without water. Median (range) Tmax increased from 2.5 (1.5 – 6) hours to 4.5 (2.5 – 8.0) hours when administration without compared to with food.

Elimination

Anfetamina undergoes both hepatic and renal elimination. The plasma elimination half-life of d- and l-Anfetamina averaged 10.0 and about 11.7 hours in healthy adult volunteers.

Metabolism

Anfetamina d- and l- enantiomers are highly metabolized largely by two primary oxidative pathways, one via CYP2D6 to produce active metabolite 4-hydroxyamphetamine, and the other by oxidative deamination. CYP2D6 is one of several enzymes involved in the biotransformation of Anfetamina.

Excretion

Anfetamina is renally eliminated in a pH-dependent manner. The renal excretion rate of unchanged Anfetamina at a urine pH of 6.6 averages 70% versus 17% - 43% at urine pH of >6.7.


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References

  1. DailyMed. "AMPHETAMINE: DailyMed provides trustworthy information about marketed drugs in the United States. DailyMed is the official provider of FDA label information (package inserts).". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailyme... (accessed September 17, 2018).
  2. NCIt. "Amphetamine: NCI Thesaurus (NCIt) provides reference terminology for many systems. It covers vocabulary for clinical care, translational and basic research, and public information and administrative activities.". https://ncit.nci.nih.gov/ncitbrowser... (accessed September 17, 2018).
  3. EPA DSStox. "Amphetamine: DSSTox provides a high quality public chemistry resource for supporting improved predictive toxicology.". https://comptox.epa.gov/dashboard/ds... (accessed September 17, 2018).

Reviews

The results of a survey conducted on ndrugs.com for Anfetamina are given in detail below. The results of the survey conducted are based on the impressions and views of the website users and consumers taking Anfetamina. We implore you to kindly base your medical condition or therapeutic choices on the result or test conducted by a physician or licensed medical practitioners.

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Information checked by Dr. Sachin Kumar, MD Pharmacology

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