Apresoline Actions

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Actions of Apresoline in details

The action of the drug on the human body is called Pharmacodynamics in Medical terminology. To produce its effect and to change the pathological process that is happening the body and to reduce the symptom or cure the disease, the medicine has to function in a specific way. The changes it does to the body at cellular level gives the desired result of treating a disease. Drugs act by stimulating or inhibiting a receptor or an enzyme or a protein most of the times. Medications are produced in such a way that the ingredients target the specific site and bring about chemical changes in the body that can stop or reverse the chemical reaction which is causing the disease.
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Although the precise mechanism of action of Apresoline is not fully understood, the major effects are on the cardiovascular system. Apresoline apparently lowers blood pressure by exerting a peripheral vasodilating effect through a direct relaxation of vascular smooth muscle. It has also been suggested that cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP) mediates, at least partly, the relaxation of arterial smooth muscle by altering cellular calcium metabolism, which interferes with the calcium movements within the vascular smooth muscle that are responsible for initiating or maintaining the contractile state. In hypertensive patients, the Apresoline-induced decrease in blood pressure is accompanied by increased heart rate, cardiac output, and stroke volume, probably because of a reflex response to decreased peripheral resistance. The drug has no direct effect on the heart. Apresoline may increase pulmonary arterial pressure, as well as coronary, splanchnic, cerebral, and renal blood flow. The preferential dilatation of arterioles, as compared to veins, minimizes postural hypotension and promotes the increase in cardiac output. Apresoline usually increases renin activity in plasma, presumably as a result of increased secretion of renin by the renal juxtaglomerular cells in response to reflex sympathetic discharge. This increase in renin activity leads to the production of angiotensin II, which then causes stimulation of aldosterone and consequent sodium reabsorption. Tolerance to the antihypertensive effect of the drug develops during prolonged therapy, especially if a diuretic is not administered concurrently. In patients with CHF, Apresoline decreases systemic vascular resistance and increases cardiac output.

How should I take Apresoline?

Take Apresoline exactly as directed by your doctor. Do not take more or less of it, and do not take it more often than your doctor ordered. Your dose may need to be changed several times in order to find out what works best for you.

In addition to the use of Apresoline, treatment for your high blood pressure may include weight control and changes in the types of foods you eat, especially foods high in sodium (salt). Your doctor will tell you which of these are most important for you. You should check with your doctor before changing your diet.

Many patients who have high blood pressure will not notice any signs of the problem. In fact, many may feel normal. It is very important that you take your medicine exactly as directed and that you keep your appointments with your doctor even if you feel well.

Remember that Apresoline will not cure your high blood pressure, but it does help control it. You must continue to take it as directed if you expect to lower your blood pressure and keep it down. You may have to take high blood pressure medicine for the rest of your life. If high blood pressure is not treated, it can cause serious problems such as heart failure, blood vessel disease, stroke, or kidney disease.

It is best to take your medicine on an empty stomach, 1 hour before or 2 hours after meals.

For patients taking the oral liquid:

Dosing

The dose of Apresoline will be different for different patients. Follow your doctor's orders or the directions on the label. The following information includes only the average doses of Apresoline. If your dose is different, do not change it unless your doctor tells you to do so.

The amount of medicine that you take depends on the strength of the medicine. Also, the number of doses you take each day, the time allowed between doses, and the length of time you take the medicine depend on the medical problem for which you are using the medicine.

Missed Dose

If you miss a dose of Apresoline, take it as soon as possible. However, if it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not double doses.

Storage

Store the medicine in a closed container at room temperature, away from heat, moisture, and direct light. Keep from freezing.

Keep out of the reach of children.

Do not keep outdated medicine or medicine no longer needed.

Ask your healthcare professional how you should dispose of any medicine you do not use.

Apresoline administration

Administration of drug is important to know because the drug absorption and action varies depending on the route and time of administration of the drug. A medicine is prescribed before meals or after meals or along with meals. The specific timing of the drug intake about food is to increase its absorption and thus its efficacy. Few work well when taken in empty stomach and few medications need to be taken 1 or 2 hrs after the meal. A drug can be in the form of a tablet, a capsule which is the oral route of administration and the same can be in IV form which is used in specific cases. Other forms of drug administration can be a suppository in anal route or an inhalation route.
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Take this medication exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Do not take it in larger amounts or for longer than recommended. Follow the directions on your prescription label.

To be sure this medication is helping your condition and is not causing harmful effects, your blood pressure will need to be checked often. You may also need occasional blood tests. Do not miss any scheduled appointments.

Keep using Apresoline as directed, even if you feel well. High blood pressure often has no symptoms, so you may not know when your blood pressure is high. You may need to use blood pressure medication for the rest of your life.

Store Apresoline at room temperature away from moisture and heat.

Apresoline pharmacology

Pharmacokinetics of a drug can be defined as what body does to the drug after it is taken. The therapeutic result of the medicine depends upon the Pharmacokinetics of the drug. It deals with the time taken for the drug to be absorbed, metabolized, the process and chemical reactions involved in metabolism and about the excretion of the drug. All these factors are essential to deciding on the efficacy of the drug. Based on these pharmacokinetic principles, the ingredients, the Pharmaceutical company decides dose and route of administration. The concentration of the drug at the site of action which is proportional to therapeutic result inside the body depends on various pharmacokinetic reactions that occur in the body.

Although the precise mechanism of action of Apresoline is not fully understood, the major effects are on the cardiovascular system. Apresoline apparently lowers blood pressure by exerting a peripheral vasodilating effect through a direct relaxation of vascular smooth muscle. Apresoline, by altering cellular calcium metabolism, interferes with the calcium movements within the vascular smooth muscle that are responsible for initiating or maintaining the contractile state.

The peripheral vasodilating effect of Apresoline results in decreased arterial blood pressure (diastolic more than systolic); decreased peripheral vascular resistance; and an increased heart rate, stroke volume, and cardiac output. The preferential dilatation of arterioles, as compared to veins, minimizes postural hypotension and promotes the increase in cardiac output. Apresoline usually increases renin activity in plasma, presumably as a result of increased secretion of renin by the renal juxtaglomerular cells in response to reflex sympathetic discharge. This increase in renin activity leads to the production of angiotensin II, which then causes stimulation of aldosterone and consequent sodium reabsorption. Apresoline also maintains or increases renal and cerebral blood flow.

Apresoline is rapidly absorbed after oral administration, and peak plasma levels are reached at 1-2 hours. Plasma levels of apparent Apresoline decline with a half-life of 3-7 hours. Binding to human plasma protein is 87% Plasma levels of Apresoline vary widely among individuals. Apresoline is subject to polymorphic acetylation; slow acetylators generally have higher plasma levels of Apresoline and require lower doses to maintain control of blood pressure. Apresoline undergoes extensive hepatic metabolism; it is excreted mainly in the form of metabolites in the urine.


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References

  1. NCIt. "Hydralazine: NCI Thesaurus (NCIt) provides reference terminology for many systems. It covers vocabulary for clinical care, translational and basic research, and public information and administrative activities.". https://ncit.nci.nih.gov/ncitbrowser... (accessed September 17, 2018).
  2. EPA DSStox. "Hydralazine: DSSTox provides a high quality public chemistry resource for supporting improved predictive toxicology.". https://comptox.epa.gov/dashboard/ds... (accessed September 17, 2018).

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The results of a survey conducted on ndrugs.com for Apresoline are given in detail below. The results of the survey conducted are based on the impressions and views of the website users and consumers taking Apresoline. We implore you to kindly base your medical condition or therapeutic choices on the result or test conducted by a physician or licensed medical practitioners.

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Information checked by Dr. Sachin Kumar, MD Pharmacology

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