The action of the drug on the human body is called Pharmacodynamics in Medical terminology. To produce its effect and to change the pathological process that is happening the body and to reduce the symptom or cure the disease, the medicine has to function in a specific way. The changes it does to the body at cellular level gives the desired result of treating a disease. Drugs act by stimulating or inhibiting a receptor or an enzyme or a protein most of the times. Medications are produced in such a way that the ingredients target the specific site and bring about chemical changes in the body that can stop or reverse the chemical reaction which is causing the disease.
Description: Chlordiazepoxide enhances activity of the inhibitory transmitter GABA in different parts of CNS by increasing neuronal-membrane permeability to chloride ions resulting to hyperpolarisation and stabilisation. It has some muscle relaxant and anticonvulsant activity.
Absorption: Almost complete (oral); peak plasma concentrations after 1-2 hrs.
Distribution: Crosses the placenta, diffuses into CSF, enters breast milk. Protein-binding: 96%
Metabolism: Hepatic; converted to desmethyldiazepam.
Excretion: Urine (as unchanged drug and metabolites; faeces (conjugated metabolites); 5-30 hrs (elimination half-life).
How should I take Chlordiazepoxide?
Take Chlordiazepoxide only as directed by your doctor. Do not take more of it, do not take it more often, and do not take it for a longer time than your doctor ordered.
The dose of Chlordiazepoxide will be different for different patients. Follow your doctor's orders or the directions on the label. The following information includes only the average doses of Chlordiazepoxide. If your dose is different, do not change it unless your doctor tells you to do so.
The amount of medicine that you take depends on the strength of the medicine. Also, the number of doses you take each day, the time allowed between doses, and the length of time you take the medicine depend on the medical problem for which you are using the medicine.
For oral dosage form (capsules):
Adults—5 to 25 milligrams (mg) three or four times a day.
Older adults—5 milligrams (mg) two to four times a day.
Children 6 years of age and older—At first, 5 milligrams (mg) two to four times a day. Your doctor may increase your dose if needed.
Children younger than 6 years of age—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.
For apprehension and anxiety before a surgery:
Adults—5 to 10 milligrams (mg) three or four times a day, taken several days before the surgery.
Children—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.
For symptoms of alcohol withdrawal:
Adults—At first, 50 to 100 milligrams (mg). The dose may be repeated until agitation is controlled. However, the dose is usually not more than 300 mg per day.
Children—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.
If you miss a dose of Chlordiazepoxide, take it as soon as possible. However, if it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not double doses.
Store the medicine in a closed container at room temperature, away from heat, moisture, and direct light. Keep from freezing.
Keep out of the reach of children.
Do not keep outdated medicine or medicine no longer needed.
Ask your healthcare professional how you should dispose of any medicine you do not use.
Administration of drug is important to know because the drug absorption and action varies depending on the route and time of administration of the drug. A medicine is prescribed before meals or after meals or along with meals. The specific timing of the drug intake about food is to increase its absorption and thus its efficacy. Few work well when taken in empty stomach and few medications need to be taken 1 or 2 hrs after the meal. A drug can be in the form of a tablet, a capsule which is the oral route of administration and the same can be in IV form which is used in specific cases. Other forms of drug administration can be a suppository in anal route or an inhalation route.
May be taken with or without food.
Pharmacokinetics of a drug can be defined as what body does to the drug after it is taken. The therapeutic result of the medicine depends upon the Pharmacokinetics of the drug. It deals with the time taken for the drug to be absorbed, metabolized, the process and chemical reactions involved in metabolism and about the excretion of the drug. All these factors are essential to deciding on the efficacy of the drug. Based on these pharmacokinetic principles, the ingredients, the Pharmaceutical company decides dose and route of administration. The concentration of the drug at the site of action which is proportional to therapeutic result inside the body depends on various pharmacokinetic reactions that occur in the body.
Chlordiazepoxide has antianxiety, sedative, appetite-stimulating and weak analgesic actions. The precise mechanism of action is not known. The drug blocks EEG arousal from stimulation of the brain stem reticular formation. It takes several hours for peak blood levels to be reached and the half-life of the drug is between 24 and 48 hours. After the drug is discontinued plasma levels decline slowly over a period of several days. Chlordiazepoxide is excreted in the urine, with 1% to 2% unchanged and 3% to 6% as conjugate.
The drug has been studied extensively in many species of animals and these studies are suggestive of action on the limbic system of the brain, which recent evidence indicates is involved in emotional responses.
Hostile monkeys were made tame by oral drug doses which did not cause sedation. Chlordiazepoxide revealed a “taming” action with the elimination of fear and aggression. The taming effect of Chlordiazepoxide was further demonstrated in rats made vicious by lesions in the septal area of the brain. The drug dosage which effectively blocked the vicious reaction was well below the dose which caused sedation in these animals.
The LD50 of parenterally administered Chlordiazepoxide was determined in mice (72 hours) and rats (5 days), and calculated according to the method of Miller and Tainter, with the following results: mice, IV, 123±12mg/kg; mice, IM, 366±7mg/kg; rats, IV, 120±7 mg/kg; rats, IM, greater than 160 mg/kg.
Effects on Reproduction:
Reproduction studies in rats fed 10, 20 and 80 mg/kg daily and bred through one or two matings showed no congenital anomalies, nor were there adverse effects on lactation of the dams or growth of the newborn. However, in another study at 100 mg/kg daily there was noted a significant decrease in the fertilization rate and a marked decrease in the viability and body weight of offspring which may be attributable to sedative activity, thus resulting in lack of interest in mating and lessened maternal nursing and care of the young. One neonate in each of the first and second matings in the rat reproduction study at the 100 mg/kg dose exhibited major skeletal defects. Further studies are in progress to determine the significance of these findings.
DailyMed. "AMITRIPTYLINE HYDROCHLORIDE; CHLORDIAZEPOXIDE: DailyMed provides trustworthy information about marketed drugs in the United States. DailyMed is the official provider of FDA label information (package inserts).". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailyme... (accessed September 17, 2018).
NCIt. "Chlordiazepoxide: NCI Thesaurus (NCIt) provides reference terminology for many systems. It covers vocabulary for clinical care, translational and basic research, and public information and administrative activities.". https://ncit.nci.nih.gov/ncitbrowser... (accessed September 17, 2018).
EPA DSStox. "Chlordiazepoxide: DSSTox provides a high quality public chemistry resource for supporting improved predictive toxicology.". https://comptox.epa.gov/dashboard/ds... (accessed September 17, 2018).
The results of a survey conducted on ndrugs.com for Chlordiazepoxide are given in detail below. The results of the survey conducted are based on the impressions and views of the website users and consumers taking Chlordiazepoxide. We implore you to kindly base your medical condition or therapeutic choices on the result or test conducted by a physician or licensed medical practitioners.
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