Clomiphene Citrate Pregnancy

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Pregnancy of Clomiphene Citrate in details

Pregnancy is always a special situation where every action or side effect of the drug varies when compared to a situation of a non-pregnant patient. It is not only because the pregnant woman's metabolism differs due to the hormonal and other changes happened to her, but also because every medicine or its metabolite passes to the baby and shows its action there. The only thing is, be cautious, attentive and well supervised when you take any single drug in pregnancy. The interactions can vary in pregnancy, and the dosage may differ as well. Strict supervision of the Physician is mandatory.
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Human data does not suggest an increased congenital anomaly risk above that observed in the normal population when used as indicated. Animal studies have shown increased embryo-fetal loss and structural malformations. Fetal abnormalities reported during clinical trials include congenital heart lesions, Down's syndrome, hydatidiform mole, club foot, congenital gut lesions, hypospadias, microcephaly, harelip, cleft palate, congenital hip, hemangioma, undescended testicles, polydactyly, conjoined twins and teratomatous malformation, patent ductus arteriosus, syndactyly, pectus excavatum myopathy, dermoid cyst of the scalp, arteriovenous fistula, inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, omphalocele, spina bifida occulta, ichthyosis, persistent lingual frenulum, and still births. A number of cases of anencephaly have been reported in Clomiphene Citrate-induced pregnancy. It is not known if this effect is drug-related or due to the underlying infertility. Postmarketing surveillance reporting has revealed the following fetal/neonatal abnormalities: delayed development, mental retardation, abnormal bone development, tissue malformation, abnormal organ development, dwarfism, chromosomal disorders, and neural tube defects. FDA pregnancy category X: Studies in animals or humans have demonstrated fetal abnormalities and/or there is positive evidence of human fetal risk based on adverse reaction data from investigational or marketing experience, and the risks involved in use of the drug in pregnant women clearly outweigh potential benefits.

FDA pregnancy category: X Use of DRUG is contraindicated. Comments: If pregnancy occurs during therapy, the patient should be informed of potential fetal risks.

See references

Clomiphene Citrate breastfeeding

When a drug is taken when the patient is breast feeding, a part of the drug is secreted in her breast milk and is passed to the baby. The dosage of the medicine to mother and baby are different, and many drugs actions are side effects when you take them without a disease, and what if you the baby takes them without a disease? What if the drug is contraindicated in newborns, infants or children? So, breastfeeding is a very alarming situation when the mother is on medications. Ask your Physician or Pediatrician about the effect of the drug on the baby and how much is excreted in breast milk and if it harms the baby!
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Caution is recommended. Excreted into human milk: Unknown Excreted into animal milk: Unknown The effects in the nursing infant are unknown.

Dosages of 100 mg/day for 5 days have suppressed puerperal lactation. In a small study of women with galactorrhea, administration of Clomiphene Citrate was associated with a rapid cessation of galactorrhea.

See references

References for pregnancy information

  1. Ford WD, Little KE "Fetal ovarian dysplasia possibly associated with Clomiphene Citrate." Lancet 2 (1981): 1107
  2. Marchbanks PA, Coulam CB, Annegers JF "An association between Clomiphene Citrate and ectopic pregnancy: a preliminary report." Fertil Steril 44 (1985): 268-70
  3. Burke M "Letter: Ectopic pregnancy, hydatidiform mole and Clomiphene Citrate." Lancet 1 (1976): 41-2
  4. "Product Information. Clomid (Clomiphene Citrate)." Hoechst Marion-Roussel Inc, Kansas City, MO.
  5. Ahlgren M, Kallen B, Rannevik G "Outcome of pregnancy after Clomiphene Citrate therapy." Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 55 (1976): 371-5
  6. Elwood JM "Letter: Clomiphene Citrate and anencephalic births." Lancet 1 (1974): 31
  7. Kurachi K, Aono T, Minagawa J, Miyake A "Congenital malformations of newborn infants after Clomiphene Citrate-induced ovulation." Fertil Steril 40 (1983): 187-9
  8. Berman P "Letter: Congenital abnormalities associated with maternal Clomiphene Citrate ingestion." Lancet 2 (1975): 878
  9. Wajntraub G, Kamar R, Pardo Y "Hydatidiform mole after treatment with Clomiphene Citrate." Fertil Steril 25 (1974): 904-5
  10. Laing IA, Steer CR, Dudgeon J, Brown JK "Clomiphene Citrate and congenital retinopathy." Lancet 2 (1981): 1107-8
  11. Harlap S "Ovulation induction and congenital malformations." Lancet 2 (1976): 961
  12. Biale Y, Leventhal H, Altaras M, Ben-Aderet N "Anencephaly and Clomiphene Citrate-induced pregnancy." Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 57 (1978): 483-4

References for breastfeeding information

  1. Loraine JA, Bell ET, Harkness RA, Harrison MT "The effect of Clomiphene Citrate on hormone excretion in patients with galactorrhoea." Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 52 (1966): 527-34
  2. "Product Information. Clomid (Clomiphene Citrate)." Hoechst Marion-Roussel Inc, Kansas City, MO.
  3. Kalir R, David MP, Kraicer PF "Clomiphene Citrate in suppression of puerperal lactation." Am J Obstet Gynecol 122 (1975): 570-2
  4. Weir JH "Postthoracotomy galactorrhea successfully treated with Clomiphene Citrate." Am J Obstet Gynecol 111 (1971): 106-7


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References

  1. PubMed Health. "Clomiphene (By mouth) (Clomid): This section provide the link out information of drugs collectetd in PubMed Health. ". http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhe... (accessed September 17, 2018).
  2. Human Metabolome Database (HMDB). "Clomifene: The Human Metabolome Database (HMDB) is a freely available electronic database containing detailed information about small molecule metabolites found in the human body.". http://www.hmdb.ca/metabolites/HMDB0... (accessed September 17, 2018).
  3. LiverTox. "Clomiphene: LIVERTOX provides up-to-date, accurate, and easily accessed information on the diagnosis, cause, frequency, patterns, and management of liver injury attributable to prescription and nonprescription medications, herbals and dietary supplements. ". https://livertox.nlm.nih.gov//Clomip... (accessed September 17, 2018).

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