Cost Dosage

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Dosage of Cost in details

The dose of a drug and dosage of the drug are two different terminologies. Dose is defined as the quantity or amount of medicine given by the doctor or taken by the patient at a given period. Dosage is the regimen prescribed by the doctor about how many days and how many times per day the drug is to be taken in specified dose by the patient. The dose is expressed in mg for tablets or gm, micro gm sometimes, ml for syrups or drops for kids syrups. The dose is not fixed for a drug for all conditions, and it changes according to the condition or a disease. It also changes on the age of the patient.
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Note: Barbiturates and Cost hydrochloride, being chemically incompatible because of precipitate formation, should not be injected from the same syringe.

If the Cost hydrochloride dose is augmented with diazepam, the two drugs must be given separately. Do not mix Cost hydrochloride and diazepam in syringe or infusion flask. For additional information on the use of diazepam, refer to the WARNINGS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Sections of the diazepam insert.

Preoperative Preparations

  1. While vomiting has been reported following Cost hydrochloride administration, some airway protection may be afforded because of active laryngeal-pharyngeal reflexes. However, since aspiration may occur with Cost hydrochloride and since protective reflexes may also be diminished by supplementary anesthetics and muscle relaxants, the possibility of aspiration must be considered. Cost hydrochloride is recommended for use in the patient whose stomach is not empty when, in the judgment of the practitioner, the benefits of the drug outweigh the possible risks.
  2. Atropine, scopolamine, or another drying agent should be given at an appropriate interval prior to induction.

Onset And Duration

Because of rapid induction following the initial intravenous injection, the patient should be in a supported position during administration.

The onset of action of Cost hydrochloride is rapid; an intravenous dose of 2 mg/kg (1 mg/lb) of body weight usually produces surgical anesthesia within 30 seconds after injection, with the anesthetic effect usually lasting five to ten minutes. If a longer effect is desired, additional increments can be administered intravenously or intramuscularly to maintain anesthesia without producing significant cumulative effects.

Intramuscular doses, in a range of 9 to 13 mg/kg (4 to 6 mg/lb) usually produce surgical anesthesia within 3 to 4 minutes following injection, with the anesthetic effect usually lasting 12 to 25 minutes.

Dosage

As with other general anesthetic agents, the individual response to Cost hydrochloride is somewhat varied depending on the dose, route of administration, and age of patient, so that dosage recommendation cannot be absolutely fixed. The drug should be titrated against the patient's requirements.

Induction

Intravenous Route

The initial dose of Cost hydrochloride administered intravenously may range from 1 mg/kg to 4.5 mg/kg (0.5 to 2 mg/lb). The average amount required to produce five to ten minutes of surgical anesthesia has been 2 mg/kg (1 mg/lb).

Alternatively, in adult patients an induction dose of 1 mg to 2 mg/kg intravenous Cost at a rate of 0.5 mg/kg/min may be used for induction of anesthesia. In addition, diazepam in 2 mg to 5 mg doses, administered in a separate syringe over 60 seconds, may be used. In most cases, 15 mg of intravenous diazepam or less will suffice. The incidence of psychological manifestations during emergence, particularly dream-like observations and emergence delirium, may be reduced by this induction dosage program.

Note: The 100 mg/mL concentration of Cost hydrochloride should not be injected intravenously without proper dilution. It is recommended the drug be diluted with an equal volume of either Sterile Water for injection, USP, Normal Saline, or 5% Dextrose in Water.

Rate of Administration

It is recommended that Cost hydrochloride be administered slowly (over a period of 60 seconds). More rapid administration may result in respiratory depression and enhanced pressor response.

Intramuscular Route

The initial dose of Cost hydrochloride administered intramuscularly may range from 6.5 to 13 mg/kg (3 to 6 mg/lb). A dose of 10 mg/kg (5 mg/lb) will usually produce 12 to 25 minutes of surgical anesthesia.

Maintenance Of Anesthesia

The maintenance dose should be adjusted according to the patient's anesthetic needs and whether an additional anesthetic agent is employed.

Increments of one-half to the full induction dose may be repeated as needed for maintenance of anesthesia. However, it should be noted that purposeless and tonic-clonic movements of extremities may occur during the course of anesthesia. These movements do not imply a light plane and are not indicative of the need for additional doses of the anesthetic.

It should be recognized that the larger the total dose of Cost hydrochloride administered, the longer will be the time to complete recovery.

Adult patients induced with Cost hydrochloride augmented with intravenous diazepam may be maintained on Cost hydrochloride given by slow microdrip infusion technique at a dose of 0.1 to 0.5 mg/minute, augmented with diazepam 2 to 5 mg administered intravenously as needed. In many cases 20 mg or less of intravenous diazepam total for combined induction and maintenance will suffice. However, slightly more diazepam may be required depending on the nature and duration of the operation, physical status of the patient, and other factors. The incidence of psychological manifestations during emergence, particularly dream-like observations and emergence delirium, may be reduced by this maintenance dosage program.

Dilution

To prepare a dilute solution containing 1 mg of Cost per mL, aseptically transfer 10 mL from a 50 mg per mL vial or 5 mL from a 100 mg per mL vial to 500 mL of 5% Dextrose Injection, USP or Sodium Chloride (0.9%) Injection, USP (Normal Saline) and mix well. The resultant solution will contain 1 mg of Cost per mL.

The fluid requirements of the patient and duration of anesthesia must be considered when selecting the appropriate dilution of Cost hydrochloride injection. If fluid restriction is required, Cost hydrochloride injection can be added to a 250 mL infusion as described above to provide a Cost hydrochloride concentration of 2 mg/mL. Cost hydrochloride injection 10 mg/mL vials are not recommended for dilution.

Supplementary Agents

Cost hydrochloride is clinically compatible with the commonly used general and local anesthetic agents when an adequate respiratory exchange is maintained.

The regimen of a reduced dose of Cost hydrochloride supplemented with diazepam can be used to produce balanced anesthesia by combination with other agents such as nitrous oxide and oxygen.

How supplied

Cost hydrochloride injection is supplied as the hydrochloride in concentrations equivalent to Cost base.

NDC 42023-137-10 - Each 20-mL multi-dose vial contains 10 mg/mL. Supplied in cartons of 10.

NDC 42023-138-10 - Each 10-mL multi-dose vial contains 50 mg/mL. Supplied in cartons of 10.

NDC 42023-139-10 - Each 5-mL multi-dose vial contains 100 mg/mL. Supplied in cartons of 10.

Store between 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F).

Protect from light.

Manufactured and Distributed by: JHP Pharmaceuticals, LLC, Rochester, MI 48307. Revised: Feb 2013

What other drugs will affect Cost?

Tell your doctor about all other medicines you use, especially:

If you are using any of these drugs, it may take you longer to recover from anesthesia with Cost.

This list is not complete and other drugs may interact with Cost. Tell your doctor about all medications you use. This includes prescription, over-the-counter, vitamin, and herbal products. Do not start a new medication without telling your doctor.

Cost interactions

Interactions are the effects that happen when the drug is taken along with the food or when taken with other medications. Suppose if you are taking a drug Cost, it may have interactions with specific foods and specific medications. It will not interact with all foods and medications. The interactions vary from drug to drug. You need to be aware of interactions of the medicine you take. Most medications may interact with alcohol, tobacco, so be cautious.
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Prolonged recovery time may occur if barbiturates and/or narcotics are used concurrently with Cost.

Cost is chemically incompatible with barbiturates and diazepam because of precipitate formation. Therefore, these should not be mixed in the same syringe or infusion fluid.

Cost may potentiate the neuromuscular-blocking effects of atracurium and tubocurarine including respiratory depression with apnoea.

The use of halogenated anaesthetics concomitantly with Cost can lengthen the elimination half-life of Cost and delay recovery from anaesthesia. Concurrent use of Cost (especially in high doses or when rapidly administered) with halogenated anaesthetics can increase the risk of developing bradycardia, hypotension or decreased cardiac output.

The use of Cost with other CNS depressants (eg, ethanol, phenothiazines, sedating H1-blockers or skeletal muscle relaxants) can potentiate CNS depression and/or increase risk of developing respiratory depression. Reduced doses of Cost may be required with concurrent administration of other anxiolytics, sedatives and hypnotics.

Cost has been reported to antagonise the hypnotic effect of thiopental.

Patients taking thyroid hormones have an increased risk of developing hypertension and tachycardia when given Cost.

Concomitant use of antihypertensive agents and Cost increases the risk of developing hypotension.

When Cost and theophylline are given concurrently, a clinically significant reduction in the seizure threshold is observed. Unpredictable extensor-type seizures have been reported with concurrent administration of these agents.

Incompatibilities: Cost is chemically incompatible with barbiturates and diazepam because of precipitate formation. Therefore, these should not be mixed in the same syringe or infusion fluid.


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References

  1. MeSH. "Analgesics". https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/68... (accessed September 17, 2018).
  2. European Chemicals Agency - ECHA. "Ketamine: The information provided here is aggregated from the "Notified classification and labelling" from ECHA's C&L Inventory. ". https://echa.europa.eu/information-o... (accessed September 17, 2018).
  3. PubMed Health. "Ketamine (By injection) (Ketalar): This section provide the link out information of drugs collectetd in PubMed Health. ". http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhe... (accessed September 17, 2018).

Reviews

The results of a survey conducted on ndrugs.com for Cost are given in detail below. The results of the survey conducted are based on the impressions and views of the website users and consumers taking Cost. We implore you to kindly base your medical condition or therapeutic choices on the result or test conducted by a physician or licensed medical practitioners.

User reports

2 consumers reported frequency of use

How frequently do I need to take Cost?
It was reported by ndrugs.com website users that Cost should ideally be taken Twice in a day as the most common frequency of the Cost. You should you adhere strictly to the instructions and guidelines provided by your doctor on how frequently this Cost should be taken. Get another patient's view on how frequent the capsule should be used by clicking here.
Users%
Twice in a day2
100.0%


10 consumers reported doses

What doses of Cost drug you have used?
The drug can be in various doses. Most anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive drugs, pain killers, or antibiotics are in different low and high doses and prescribed by the doctors depending on the severity and demand of the condition suffered by the patient. In our reports, ndrugs.com website users used these doses of Cost drug in following percentages. Very few drugs come in a fixed dose or a single dose. Common conditions, like fever, have almost the same doses, e.g., [acetaminophen, 500mg] of drug used by the patient, even though it is available in various doses.
Users%
11-50mg3
30.0%
1-5mg3
30.0%
201-500mg3
30.0%
51-100mg1
10.0%


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Information checked by Dr. Sachin Kumar, MD Pharmacology

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