Daphazyl Actions

sponsored
How old is patient?

Consists of metronidazole, Spiramycin

Actions of Metronidazole (Daphazyl) in details

infoThe action of the drug on the human body is called Pharmacodynamics in Medical terminology. To produce its effect and to change the pathological process that is happening the body and to reduce the symptom or cure the disease, the medicine has to function in a specific way. The changes it does to the body at cellular level gives the desired result of treating a disease. Drugs act by stimulating or inhibiting a receptor or an enzyme or a protein most of the times. Medications are produced in such a way that the ingredients target the specific site and bring about chemical changes in the body that can stop or reverse the chemical reaction which is causing the disease.
sponsored

Pharmacology: Metronidazole (Daphazyl) is a synthetic antibacterial compound. Disposition of Metronidazole (Daphazyl) in the body is similar for both oral and intravenous dosage forms, with an average elimination half-life in healthy humans of eight hours.

The major route of elimination of Metronidazole (Daphazyl) and its metabolites is via the urine (60-80% of the dose), with fecal excretion accounting for 6-15% of the dose. The metabolites that appear in the urine result primarily from side-chain oxidation [1-(β-hydroxyethyl)-2-hydroxymethyl-5-nitroimidazole and 2-methyl-5-nitroimidazole-1-yl-acetic acid] and glucuronide conjugation, with unchanged Metronidazole (Daphazyl) accounting for approximately 20% of the total. Renal clearance of Metronidazole (Daphazyl) is approximately 10 mL/min/1.73 m2.

Metronidazole (Daphazyl) is the major component appearing in the plasma, with lesser quantities of the 2-hydroxymethyl metabolite also being present. Less than 20% of the circulating Metronidazole (Daphazyl) is bound to plasma proteins. Both the parent compound and the metabolite possess in vitro bactericidal activity against most strains of anaerobic bacteria.

Metronidazole (Daphazyl) appears in cerebrospinal fluid, saliva and breast milk in concentrations similar to those found in plasma. Bactericidal concentrations of Metronidazole (Daphazyl) have also been detected in pus from hepatic abscesses.

Plasma concentration of Metronidazole (Daphazyl) are proportional to the administered dose. An eight hour intravenous infusion of 100-4,000 mg of Metronidazole (Daphazyl) in normal subjects showed a linear relationship between dose and peak plasma concentration.

In patients treated with intravenous Metronidazole (Daphazyl), using a dosing regimen of 15 mg/kg loading dose followed six hours later by 7.5 mg/kg every six hours, peak steady-state plasma concentrations of Metronidazole (Daphazyl) averaged 25 mcg/mL with trough (minimum) concentrations averaging 18 mcg/mL.

Decreased renal function does not alter the single-dose pharmacokinetics of Metronidazole (Daphazyl). However, plasma clearance of Metronidazole (Daphazyl) is decreased in patients with decreased liver function.

In one study newborn infants appeared to demonstrate diminished capacity to eliminate Metronidazole (Daphazyl). The elimination half-life, measured during the first three days of life, was inversely related to gestational age. In infants whose gestational ages were between 28 and 40 weeks, the corresponding elimination half-lives ranged from 10.9 to 22.5 hours.

Microbiology: Metronidazole (Daphazyl) is active in vitro against most obligate anaerobes, but does not appear to possess any clinically relevant activity against facultative anaerobes or obligate aerobes. Against susceptible organisms, Metronidazole (Daphazyl) is generally bactericidal at concentrations equal to or slightly higher than the minimal inhibitory concentrations. Metronidazole (Daphazyl) has been shown to have in vitro and clinical activity against the following organisms: Anaerobic Gram-Negative Bacilli, Including: Bacteroides species, including the Bacteroides fragilis group (B. fragilis, B. distasonis, B. ovatus, B. thetaiotaomicron, B. vulgatus), Fusobacterium species.

Anaerobic Gram-Positive Bacilli, Including: Clostridium species and susceptible strains of Eubacterium.

Anaerobic Gram-Positive Cocci, Including: Peptococcus species, Peptostreptococcus species.

How should I take Metronidazole (Daphazyl)?

Do not use Metronidazole (Daphazyl) in or near the eyes. Watering of the eyes may occur when the medicine is used too close to the eyes.

If Metronidazole (Daphazyl) does get into your eyes, wash them out immediately, but carefully, with large amounts of cool tap water. If your eyes still burn or are painful, check with your doctor.

Before applying Metronidazole (Daphazyl), thoroughly wash the affected area(s) with a mild, nonirritating cleanser, rinse well, and gently pat dry.

To use:

  • After washing the affected area(s), apply Metronidazole (Daphazyl) with your fingertips.
  • Apply and rub in a thin film of medicine, using enough to cover the affected area(s) lightly. You should apply the medicine to the whole area usually affected by rosacea, not just to the pimples themselves.
  • Wash the medicine off your hands.

To help keep your rosacea under control, keep using Metronidazole (Daphazyl) for the full time of treatment. You may have to continue using Metronidazole (Daphazyl) every day for 9 weeks or longer. Do not miss any doses.

Dosing

The dose of Metronidazole (Daphazyl) will be different for different patients. Follow your doctor's orders or the directions on the label. The following information includes only the average doses of Metronidazole (Daphazyl). If your dose is different, do not change it unless your doctor tells you to do so.

The amount of medicine that you take depends on the strength of the medicine. Also, the number of doses you take each day, the time allowed between doses, and the length of time you take the medicine depend on the medical problem for which you are using the medicine.

  • For topical dosage forms (cream, gel, and lotion):
    • For rosacea:
      • Adults—Apply to the affected area(s) of skin two times a day, morning and evening, for nine weeks.
      • Children—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.

Missed Dose

If you miss a dose of Metronidazole (Daphazyl), apply it as soon as possible. However, if it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule.

Storage

Store the medicine in a closed container at room temperature, away from heat, moisture, and direct light. Keep from freezing.

Keep out of the reach of children.

Do not keep outdated medicine or medicine no longer needed.

Metronidazole (Daphazyl) administration

infoAdministration of drug is important to know because the drug absorption and action varies depending on the route and time of administration of the drug. A medicine is prescribed before meals or after meals or along with meals. The specific timing of the drug intake about food is to increase its absorption and thus its efficacy. Few work well when taken in empty stomach and few medications need to be taken 1 or 2 hrs after the meal. A drug can be in the form of a tablet, a capsule which is the oral route of administration and the same can be in IV form which is used in specific cases. Other forms of drug administration can be a suppository in anal route or an inhalation route.
sponsored

Use this medication exactly as it was prescribed for you. Do not use the medication in larger amounts, or use it for longer than recommended by your doctor.

Wash your hands before and after using this medication.

Insert the cream into your vagina using the applicator as directed.

Your medication may come with disposable applicators. Use each applicator for only 1 day and then throw it away. If you use the medication twice daily, wash and rinse the applicator after your morning dose and use it again for your evening dose. Then throw it away and use a new applicator the next day.

Use Metronidazole (Daphazyl) vaginal for the entire length of time prescribed by your doctor, even during your menstrual period. Your symptoms may get better before the infection is completely treated.

If the infection does not clear up after you have finished one course of therapy, or if your symptoms get worse, see your doctor. You may have another type of infection that Metronidazole (Daphazyl) will not treat.

You may need to use a sanitary napkin during treatment, but do not use a tampon.

Metronidazole (Daphazyl) vaginal can cause you to have unusual results with certain medical tests. Tell any doctor who treats you that you are using this medication.

Store Metronidazole (Daphazyl) vaginal at room temperature away from moisture or heat. Do not allow it to freeze.

Metronidazole (Daphazyl) pharmacology

infoPharmacokinetics of a drug can be defined as what body does to the drug after it is taken. The therapeutic result of the medicine depends upon the Pharmacokinetics of the drug. It deals with the time taken for the drug to be absorbed, metabolized, the process and chemical reactions involved in metabolism and about the excretion of the drug. All these factors are essential to deciding on the efficacy of the drug. Based on these pharmacokinetic principles, the ingredients, the Pharmaceutical company decides dose and route of administration. The concentration of the drug at the site of action which is proportional to therapeutic result inside the body depends on various pharmacokinetic reactions that occur in the body.
sponsored

Normal Subjects:

Following a single, intravaginal 5 gram dose of Metronidazole (Daphazyl) Vaginal Gel (equivalent to 37.5 mg of Metronidazole (Daphazyl)) to 12 normal subjects, a mean maximum serum Metronidazole (Daphazyl) concentration of 237 ng/mL was reported (range: 152 to 368 ng/mL). This is approximately 2% of the mean maximum serum Metronidazole (Daphazyl) concentration reported in the same subjects administered a single, oral 500 mg dose of Metronidazole (Daphazyl) (mean Cmax = 12,785 ng/mL, range: 10,013 to 17,400 ng/mL). These peak concentrations were obtained in 6 to 12 hours after dosing with Metronidazole (Daphazyl) Vaginal Gel and 1 to 3 hours after dosing with oral Metronidazole (Daphazyl).

The extent of exposure [area under the curve (AUC)] of Metronidazole (Daphazyl), when administered as a single intravaginal 5 gram dose of Metronidazole (Daphazyl) Vaginal Gel (equivalent to 37.5 mg of Metronidazole (Daphazyl)), was approximately 4% of the AUC of a single oral 500 mg dose of Metronidazole (Daphazyl) (4977 ng-hr/mL and approximately 125,000 ng-hr/mL, respectively).

Dose-adjusted comparisons of AUCs demonstrated that, on a mg to mg comparison basis, the absorption of Metronidazole (Daphazyl), when administered vaginally, was approximately half that of an equivalent oral dosage.

Patients with Bacterial Vaginosis:

Following single and multiple 5 gram doses of Metronidazole (Daphazyl) Vaginal Gel to 4 patients with bacterial vaginosis, a mean maximum serum Metronidazole (Daphazyl) concentration of 214 ng/mL on day 1 and 294 ng/mL (range: 228 to 349 ng/mL) on day five were reported. Steady state Metronidazole (Daphazyl) serum concentrations following oral dosages of 400 to 500 mg BID have been reported to range from 6,000 to 20,000 ng/mL.

Microbiology:

The intracellular targets of action of Metronidazole (Daphazyl) on anaerobes are largely unknown. The 5-nitro group of Metronidazole (Daphazyl) is reduced by metabolically active anaerobes, and studies have demonstrated that the reduced form of the drug interacts with bacterial DNA. However, it is not clear whether interaction with DNA alone is an important component in the bactericidal action of Metronidazole (Daphazyl) on anaerobic organisms.

Culture and sensitivity testing of bacteria are not routinely performed to establish the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis.

Standard methodology for the susceptibility testing of the potential bacterial vaginosis pathogens, Gardnerella vaginalis, Mobiluncus spp., and Mycoplasma hominis, has not been defined. Nonetheless, Metronidazole (Daphazyl) is an antimicrobial agent active in vitro against most strains of the following organisms that have been reported to be associated with bacterial vaginosis:

Bacteroides spp.

Gardnerella vaginalis

Mobiluncus spp.

Peptostreptococcus spp.

Actions of Spiramycin (Daphazyl) in details

infoThe action of the drug on the human body is called Pharmacodynamics in Medical terminology. To produce its effect and to change the pathological process that is happening the body and to reduce the symptom or cure the disease, the medicine has to function in a specific way. The changes it does to the body at cellular level gives the desired result of treating a disease. Drugs act by stimulating or inhibiting a receptor or an enzyme or a protein most of the times. Medications are produced in such a way that the ingredients target the specific site and bring about chemical changes in the body that can stop or reverse the chemical reaction which is causing the disease.
sponsored

Description: Spiramycin (Daphazyl) is a macrolide antibacterial that inhibits protein synthesis by irreversibly binding to the 50S subunit of the ribosomal subunit thus blocking the transpeptidation or translocation reactions of susceptible organisms resulting in stunted cell growth.

Pharmacokinetics:

Absorption: Incompletely absorbed from the GI tract (oral); peak plasma concentrations after 1.5-3 hr.

Distribution: Widely distributed into tissues, enters breast milk. Protein binding: 10-25%.

Metabolism: Metabolised hepatically to active metabolites.

Excretion: Via bile (as metabolites), via urine (10%); 5-8 hr (elimination half-life).

How should I take Spiramycin (Daphazyl)?

Spiramycin (Daphazyl) is best taken on an empty stomach.

To help clear up your infection completely, keep taking Spiramycin (Daphazyl) for the full time of treatment, even if you begin to feel better after a few days. If you stop taking Spiramycin (Daphazyl) too soon, your symptoms may return.

Spiramycin (Daphazyl) works best when there is a constant amount in the blood. To help keep the amount constant, do not miss any doses. Also, it is best to take the doses at evenly spaced times day and night. If this interferes with your sleep or other daily activities, or if you need help in planning the best times to take your medicine, check with your health care professional.

For patients using Spiramycin (Daphazyl) suppositories:

  • First remove the foil wrapper and moisten the suppository with cold water. Lie down on your side and use your finger to push the suppository well up into the rectum.

Dosing

The dose of Spiramycin (Daphazyl) will be different for different patients. Follow your doctor's orders or the directions on the label. The following information includes only the average doses of Spiramycin (Daphazyl). If your dose is different, do not change it unless your doctor tells you to do so.

The amount of medicine that you take depends on the strength of the medicine. Also, the number of doses you take each day, the time allowed between doses, and the length of time you take the medicine depend on the medical problem for which you are using the medicine.

  • For oral dosage forms (capsules or tablets):
    • For treatment of infections:
      • Adults and teenagers—1 to 2 grams (3,000,000 to 6,000,000 International Units [IU]) two times a day, or 500 mg to 1 gram (1,500,000 to 3,000,000 IU) three times a day. For severe infections, the dose is 2 to 2.5 grams (6,000,000 to 7,500,000 IU) two times a day.
      • Children weighing 20 kilograms (kg) (44 pounds) or more—Dose is based on body weight. The usual dose is 25 mg (75,000 IU) per kg (11.4 mg per pound) of body weight two times a day, or 17 mg (51,000 IU) per kg (7.7 mg per pound) of body weight three times a day.
  • For injection dosage form:
    • For treatment of infections:
      • Adults and teenagers—500 mg (1,500,000 IU) injected slowly into a vein every eight hours. For severe infections, the dose is 1 gram (3,000,000 IU) injected slowly into a vein every eight hours.
      • Children—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.
  • For rectal dosage form (suppository):
    • For treatment of infections:
      • Adults and children 12 years of age and over—Two or three 750 mg (1,950,000 IU) suppositories per day.
      • Children up to 12 years of age—Two or three 500 mg (1,300,000 IU) suppositories per day.
      • Newborns—Dose is based on body weight. The usual dose is one 250 mg (650,000 IU) suppository per 5 kg (250 mg suppository per 11 pounds) of body weight once a day.

Missed Dose

If you miss a dose of Spiramycin (Daphazyl), take it as soon as possible. However, if it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not double doses.

Storage

Store the medicine in a closed container at room temperature, away from heat, moisture, and direct light. Keep from freezing.

Keep out of the reach of children.

Do not keep outdated medicine or medicine no longer needed.

Spiramycin (Daphazyl) administration

infoAdministration of drug is important to know because the drug absorption and action varies depending on the route and time of administration of the drug. A medicine is prescribed before meals or after meals or along with meals. The specific timing of the drug intake about food is to increase its absorption and thus its efficacy. Few work well when taken in empty stomach and few medications need to be taken 1 or 2 hrs after the meal. A drug can be in the form of a tablet, a capsule which is the oral route of administration and the same can be in IV form which is used in specific cases. Other forms of drug administration can be a suppository in anal route or an inhalation route.

May be taken with or without food.

Spiramycin (Daphazyl) pharmacology

infoPharmacokinetics of a drug can be defined as what body does to the drug after it is taken. The therapeutic result of the medicine depends upon the Pharmacokinetics of the drug. It deals with the time taken for the drug to be absorbed, metabolized, the process and chemical reactions involved in metabolism and about the excretion of the drug. All these factors are essential to deciding on the efficacy of the drug. Based on these pharmacokinetic principles, the ingredients, the Pharmaceutical company decides dose and route of administration. The concentration of the drug at the site of action which is proportional to therapeutic result inside the body depends on various pharmacokinetic reactions that occur in the body.

Estrogens diffuse into their target cells and interact with a protein receptor. Target cells include the female reproductive tract, the mammary gland, the hypothalamus, and the pituitary. Estrogens increase the hepatic synthesis of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), thyroid-binding globulin (TBG), and other serum proteins and suppress follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) from the anterior pituitary. The combination of an estrogen with a progestin suppresses the hypothalamic-pituitary system, decreasing the secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH).

References

  1. DailyMed. "BISMUTH SUBCITRATE POTASSIUM; METRONIDAZOLE; TETRACYCLINE: DailyMed provides trustworthy information about marketed drugs in the United States. DailyMed is the official provider of FDA label information (package inserts).". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailyme... (accessed September 17, 2018).
  2. NCIt. "Metronidazole: NCI Thesaurus (NCIt) provides reference terminology for many systems. It covers vocabulary for clinical care, translational and basic research, and public information and administrative activities.". https://ncit.nci.nih.gov/ncitbrowser... (accessed September 17, 2018).
  3. EPA DSStox. "Metronidazole: DSSTox provides a high quality public chemistry resource for supporting improved predictive toxicology.". https://comptox.epa.gov/dashboard/ds... (accessed September 17, 2018).

Reviews

The results of a survey conducted on ndrugs.com for Daphazyl are given in detail below. The results of the survey conducted are based on the impressions and views of the website users and consumers taking Daphazyl. We implore you to kindly base your medical condition or therapeutic choices on the result or test conducted by a physician or licensed medical practitioners.

User reports

Consumer reported administration

No survey data has been collected yet


Consumer reviews


There are no reviews yet. Be the first to write one!


Your name: 
Email: 
Spam protection:  < Type 5 here

Information checked by Dr. Sachin Kumar, MD Pharmacology

| Privacy Policy
This site does not supply any medicines. It contains prices for information purposes only.
© 2003 - 2020 ndrugs.com All Rights Reserved