Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Tablets Uses
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Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Tablets indications
An indication is a term used for the list of condition or symptom or illness for which the medicine is prescribed or used by the patient. For example, acetaminophen or paracetamol is used for fever by the patient, or the doctor prescribes it for a headache or body pains. Now fever, headache and body pains are the indications of paracetamol. A patient should be aware of the indications of medications used for common conditions because they can be taken over the counter in the pharmacy meaning without prescription by the Physician.
See also: Atripla
Treatment of HIV-1 Infection
Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Tablets tablets are indicated in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in adults and pediatric patients weighing at least 17 kg.
HIV-1 Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP)
Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Tablets tablets are indicated in combination with safer sex practices for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to reduce the risk of sexually acquired HIV-1 in at-risk adults and adolescents weighing at least 35 kg. Individuals must have a negative HIV-1 test immediately prior to initiating Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Tablets tablets for HIV-1 PrEP.
When considering Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Tablets tablets for HIV-1 PrEP, factors that help to identify individuals at risk may include:
Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Tablets dosage
Testing Prior to Initiation of Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Tablets Tablets for Treatment of HIV-1 Infection or for HIV-1 PrEP
Prior to or when initiating Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Tablets tablets, test patients for hepatitis B virus infection.
Prior to initiation and during use of Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Tablets tablets, on a clinically appropriate schedule, assess serum creatinine, estimated creatinine clearance, urine glucose and urine protein in all patients. In patients with chronic kidney disease, also assess serum phosphorus.
HIV-1 Screening for Individuals Receiving Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Tablets Tablets for HIV-1 PrEP
Screen all patients for HIV-1 infection before initiating Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Tablets tablets for HIV-1 PrEP and at least once every 3 months while taking Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Tablets tablets.
Recommended Dosage for Treatment of HIV-1 Infection in Adults and Pediatric Patients Weighing at Least 35 kg
Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Tablets tablets is a two-drug fixed dose combination product containing Emtricitabine (Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Tablets) (FTC) and Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Tablets) (TDF). The recommended dosage of Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Tablets in adults and in pediatric patients weighing at least 35 kg is one tablet (containing 200 mg of FTC and 300 mg of TDF) once daily taken orally with or without food.
Recommended Dosage for Treatment of HIV-1 Infection in Pediatric Patients Weighing at Least 17 kg and Able to Swallow a Tablet
The recommended oral dosage of Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Tablets tablets for pediatric patients weighing at least 17 kg and who can swallow a tablet is presented in Table 1. Tablets should be taken once daily with or without food. Weight should be monitored periodically and the Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Tablets tablets dose adjusted accordingly.
Table 1 Dosing for Treatment of HIV-1 Infection in Pediatric Patients Weighing 17 kg to less than 35 kg
Recommended Dosage for HIV-1 PrEP
The dosage of Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Tablets tablets in HIV-1 uninfected adults and adolescents weighing at least 35 kg is one tablet (containing 200 mg of FTC and 300 mg of TDF) once daily taken orally with or without food.
Dosage Adjustment in Patients with Renal Impairment
Treatment of HIV-1 Infection
Table 2 provides dosage interval adjustment for patients with renal impairment. No dosage adjustment is necessary for HIV-1 infected patients with mild renal impairment (creatinine clearance 50 to 80 mL/min). The safety and effectiveness of the dosing interval adjustment recommendations in patients with moderate renal impairment (creatinine clearance 30 to 49 mL/min) have not been clinically evaluated; therefore, clinical response to treatment and renal function should be closely monitored in these patients.
No data are available to make dosage recommendations in pediatric patients with renal impairment.
Table 2 Dosage Interval Adjustment for HIV-1 Infected Adult Patients with Altered Creatinine Clearance
Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Tablets tablets for HIV-1 PrEP is not recommended in HIV-1 uninfected individuals with estimated creatinine clearance below 60 mL/min.
If a decrease in estimated creatinine clearance is observed in uninfected individuals while using Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Tablets tablets for HIV-1 PrEP, evaluate potential causes and re-assess potential risks and benefits of continued use.
Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Tablets side effects
The following adverse reactions are discussed in other sections of the labeling:
Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
Adverse Reactions from Clinical Trials Experience in HIV-1 Infected Subjects
Clinical Trials in Adult Subjects
In Study 934, 511 antiretroviral-naïve subjects received efavirenz (EFV) administered in combination with either FTC+TDF (N=257) or zidovudine (AZT)/lamivudine (3TC) (N=254) for 144 weeks. The most common adverse reactions (incidence greater than or equal to 10%, all grades) included diarrhea, nausea, fatigue, headache, dizziness, depression, insomnia, abnormal dreams, and rash. Table 3 provides the treatment-emergent adverse reactions (Grades 2 to 4) occurring in greater than or equal to 5% of subjects treated in any treatment group.
Skin discoloration, manifested by hyperpigmentation, occurred in 3% of subjects taking FTC+TDF, and was generally mild and asymptomatic. The mechanism and clinical significance are unknown.
Table 3 Selected Adverse Reactionsa (Grades 2 to 4) Reported in > 5% in Any Treatment Group in Study 934 (0 to 144 Weeks)
Laboratory Abnormalities: Laboratory abnormalities observed in this trial were generally consistent with those seen in other trials of TDF and/or FTC (Table 4).
Table 4 Significant Laboratory Abnormalities Reported in > 1% of Subjects in Any Treatment Group in Study 934 (0 to 144 Weeks)
Clinical Trials in Pediatric Subjects
Emtricitabine (Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Tablets): In addition to the adverse reactions reported in adults, anemia and hyperpigmentation were observed in 7% and 32%, respectively, of pediatric subjects (3 months to less than 18 years of age) who received treatment with FTC in the larger of two open-label, uncontrolled pediatric trials (N=116).
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Tablets): In pediatric clinical trials (Studies 352 and 321) conducted in 184 HIV-1 infected subjects 2 to less than 18 years of age, the adverse reactions observed in pediatric subjects who received treatment with TDF were consistent with those observed in clinical trials of TDF in adults.
In Study 352 (2 to less than 12 years of age), 89 pediatric subjects received TDF for a median exposure of 104 weeks. Of these, 4 subjects discontinued from the trial due to adverse reactions consistent with proximal renal tubulopathy. Three of these 4 subjects presented with hypophosphatemia and had decreases in total body or spine BMD Z-score. Total body BMD gain at Week 48 was less in the TDF group compared to the stavudine (d4T) or zidovudine (AZT) treatment groups. The mean rate of BMD gain in lumbar spine was similar between treatment groups. One TDF-treated subject and none of the d4T- or AZT-treated subjects experienced significant (greater than 4%) lumbar spine BMD loss at Week 48. Changes from baseline in BMD Z-scores were −0.012 for lumbar spine and −0.338 for total body in the 64 subjects who were treated with TDF for 96 weeks.
In Study 321 (12 to less than 18 years of age), the mean rate of BMD gain at Week 48 was less in the TDF compared to the placebo treatment group. Six TDF-treated subjects and one placebo-treated subject had significant (greater than 4%) lumbar spine BMD loss at Week 48. Changes from baseline BMD Z-scores were −0.341 for lumbar spine and −0.458 for total body in the 28 subjects who were treated with TDF for 96 weeks.
In both trials, skeletal growth (height) appeared to be unaffected.
Adverse Reactions from Clinical Trial Experience in Uninfected Subjects Taking Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Tablets for HIV-1 PrEP
Clinical Trials in Adult Subjects
The safety profile of Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Tablets for HIV-1 PrEP was comparable to that observed in clinical trials of HIV-infected subjects based on two randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials (iPrEx, Partners PrEP) in which 2,830 HIV-1 uninfected adults received Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Tablets once daily for HIV-1 PrEP. Subjects were followed for a median of 71 weeks and 87 weeks, respectively. Table 5 provides a list of selected adverse events that occurred in 2% or more of subjects in any treatment group in the iPrEx trial, with an incidence greater than placebo.
Table 5 Selected Adverse Events (All Grades) Reported in > 2% in Any Treatment Group in the iPrEx Trial and Greater than Placebo
In the Partners PrEP trial, the frequency of adverse events in the Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Tablets treatment group was generally either less than or the same as in the placebo group.
Laboratory Abnormalities: Table 6 provides a list of Grade 2 to 4 laboratory abnormalities observed in the iPrEx and Partners PrEP trials. Six subjects in the TDF-containing arms of the Partners PrEP trial discontinued from the trial due to an increase in serum creatinine compared with no discontinuations in the placebo group. One subject in the Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Tablets arm of the iPrEx trial discontinued from the trial due to an increase in serum creatinine and another subject discontinued due to low serum phosphorus. Grades 2 to 3 proteinuria (2 to 4+) and/or glycosuria (3+) occurred in less than 1% of subjects treated with Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Tablets in the iPrEx trial and Partners PrEP trial.
Table 6 Laboratory Abnormalities (Highest Toxicity Grade Reported for Each Subject) in the iPrEx Trial and Partners PrEP Trial
Changes in Bone Mineral Density: In clinical trials of HIV-1 uninfected individuals, decreases in BMD were observed. In the iPrEx trial, a substudy of 503 subjects found mean changes from baseline in BMD ranging from –0.4% to –1.0% across total hip, spine, femoral neck, and trochanter in the Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Tablets group compared with the placebo group, which returned toward baseline after discontinuation of treatment. Thirteen percent of Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Tablets-treated subjects versus 6% of placebo-treated subjects lost at least 5% of BMD at the spine during treatment. Bone fractures were reported in 1.7% of the Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Tablets group compared with 1.4% in the placebo group. No correlation between BMD and fractures was noted. The Partners PrEP trial found similar fracture rates between the treatment and placebo groups (0.8% and 0.6%, respectively); no BMD evaluations were performed in this trial.
Clinical Trials in Adolescent Subjects
In a single-arm, open-label clinical trial (ATN113), in which 67 HIV-1 uninfected adolescent (15 to 18 years of age) men who have sex with men received Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Tablets once daily for HIV-1 PrEP, the safety profile of Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Tablets was similar to that observed in adults. Median duration to exposure of Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Tablets was 47 weeks.
In the ATN113 trial, median BMD increased from baseline to Week 48, +2.58% for lumbar spine and +0.72% for total body. One subject had significant (greater than or equal to 4%) total body BMD loss at Week 24. Median changes from baseline BMD Z-scores were 0.0 for lumbar spine and −0.2 for total body at Week 48. Three subjects showed a worsening (change from > −2 to ≤ −2) from baseline in their lumbar spine or total body BMD Z-scores at Week 24 or 48. Interpretation of these data, however, may be limited by the low rate of adherence to Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Tablets by Week 48.
The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of TDF. No additional adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of FTC. Because postmarketing reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Immune System Disorders
allergic reaction, including angioedema
Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders
lactic acidosis, hypokalemia, hypophosphatemia
Respiratory, Thoracic, and Mediastinal Disorders
pancreatitis, increased amylase, abdominal pain
hepatic steatosis, hepatitis, increased liver enzymes (most commonly AST, ALT gamma GT)
Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders
Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders
rhabdomyolysis, osteomalacia (manifested as bone pain and which may contribute to fractures), muscular weakness, myopathy
Renal and Urinary Disorders
acute renal failure, renal failure, acute tubular necrosis, Fanconi syndrome, proximal renal tubulopathy, interstitial nephritis (including acute cases), nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, renal insufficiency, increased creatinine, proteinuria, polyuria
General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions asthenia
The following adverse reactions, listed under the body system headings above, may occur as a consequence of proximal renal tubulopathy: rhabdomyolysis, osteomalacia, hypokalemia, muscular weakness, myopathy, hypophosphatemia.
Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Tablets contraindications
Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Tablets for HIV-1 PrEP is contraindicated in individuals with unknown or positive HIV-1 status.
Active ingredient matches for Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Tablets:
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Information checked by Dr. Sachin Kumar, MD Pharmacology