Erythromycin Chung I Actions

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Actions of Erythromycin Chung I in details

The action of the drug on the human body is called Pharmacodynamics in Medical terminology. To produce its effect and to change the pathological process that is happening the body and to reduce the symptom or cure the disease, the medicine has to function in a specific way. The changes it does to the body at cellular level gives the desired result of treating a disease. Drugs act by stimulating or inhibiting a receptor or an enzyme or a protein most of the times. Medications are produced in such a way that the ingredients target the specific site and bring about chemical changes in the body that can stop or reverse the chemical reaction which is causing the disease.
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Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics:

Orally administered Erythromycin Chung I stearate is readily and reliably absorbed. Optimal serum levels of Erythromycin Chung I are reached when the drug is taken in the fasting state or immediately before meals.

Erythromycin Chung I diffuses readily into most body fluids. Only low concentrations are normally achieved in the spinal fluid, but passage of the drug across the blood-brain barrier increases in meningitis. In the presence of normal hepatic function, Erythromycin Chung I is concentrated in the liver and excreted in the bile; the effect of hepatic dysfunction on excretion of Erythromycin Chung I by the liver into the bile is not known. Less than 5% of the orally administered dose of Erythromycin Chung I is excreted in active form in the urine.

Microbiology: Biochemical tests demonstrate Erythromycin Chung I inhibits protein synthesis of the pathogen without directly affecting nucleic acid synthesis. Antagonism has been demonstrated between clindamycin and Erythromycin Chung I.

Erythromycin Chung I binds to the 50S ribosomal subunits of susceptible bacteria and suppresses protein synthesis.

Erythromycin Chung I is usually active against most strains of the following organisms both in vitro and in clinical infections: Gram-Positive Organisms: Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Corynebacterium minutissimum, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus (resistant organisms may emerge during treatment), Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes.

Gram-Negative Organisms: Bordetella pertussis, Legionella pneumophilia, Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

Other Microorganisms: Chlamydia trachomatis, Entamoeba histolytica, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Ureaplasma urealyticum.

Erythromycin Chung I has been shown to be active in vitro against most strains of the following organisms; however, the safety and efficacy of Erythromycin Chung I in treating infections due to these organisms have not been established in adequate and well-controlled trials: Gram-Positive Organisms: Alpha hemolytic streptococci (viridans group).

Gram-Negative Organisms: Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis.

Other Microorganisms: Entamoeba histolytica, Treponema pallidum.

Disc Susceptibility Tests: Quantitative methods require measurement of zone diameters give the most precise estimates of antibiotic susceptibility. One recommended procedure uses Erythromycin Chung I class discs for testing susceptibility; interpretations correlate zone diameters of this disc test with MIC values for Erythromycin Chung I. With this procedure, a report from the laboratory of "susceptible" indicates the infecting organism is likely to respond to therapy. A report of "resistant" indicates the infective organism is not likely to respond to therapy. A report of "intermediate susceptibility" indicates the result be considered equivocal, and if, the pathogen is not fully susceptible to alternative clinically feasible drugs, the test should be repeated. This category provides a buffer zone, which prevents small, uncontrolled technical factors from causing major discrepancies in interpretation.

Note: Many strains of Haemophilus influenzae are resistant to Erythromycin Chung I alone, but are susceptible to Erythromycin Chung I and sulfonamides together. Staphylococci resistant to Erythromycin Chung I may emerge during a course of Erythromycin Chung I therapy. Culture and susceptibility testing should be performed.

How should I take Erythromycin Chung I?

Before applying Erythromycin Chung I, thoroughly wash the affected area with warm water and soap, rinse well, and pat dry. After washing or shaving, it is best to wait 30 minutes before applying the pledget (swab), topical gel, or topical liquid form. The alcohol in them may irritate freshly washed or shaved skin.

For patients using the pledget (swab), topical gel, or topical liquid form of Erythromycin Chung I:

Erythromycin Chung I will not cure your acne. However, to help keep your acne under control, keep using Erythromycin Chung I for the full time of treatment, even if your symptoms begin to clear up after a few days. You may have to continue using Erythromycin Chung I every day for months or even longer in some cases. If you stop using Erythromycin Chung I too soon, your symptoms may return. It is important that you do not miss any doses.

Dosing

The dose of Erythromycin Chung I will be different for different patients. Follow your doctor's orders or the directions on the label. The following information includes only the average doses of Erythromycin Chung I. If your dose is different, do not change it unless your doctor tells you to do so.

The amount of medicine that you take depends on the strength of the medicine. Also, the number of doses you take each day, the time allowed between doses, and the length of time you take the medicine depend on the medical problem for which you are using the medicine.

Missed Dose

If you miss a dose of Erythromycin Chung I, take it as soon as possible. However, if it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not double doses.

Storage

Store the medicine in a closed container at room temperature, away from heat, moisture, and direct light. Keep from freezing.

Keep out of the reach of children.

Do not keep outdated medicine or medicine no longer needed.

Erythromycin Chung I administration

Administration of drug is important to know because the drug absorption and action varies depending on the route and time of administration of the drug. A medicine is prescribed before meals or after meals or along with meals. The specific timing of the drug intake about food is to increase its absorption and thus its efficacy. Few work well when taken in empty stomach and few medications need to be taken 1 or 2 hrs after the meal. A drug can be in the form of a tablet, a capsule which is the oral route of administration and the same can be in IV form which is used in specific cases. Other forms of drug administration can be a suppository in anal route or an inhalation route.
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Take exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Do not take in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended. Follow the directions on your prescription label.

You may take Erythromycin Chung I with or without food.

Do not crush, chew, break, or open an Erythromycin Chung I tablet or capsule. Swallow it whole.

Shake the oral suspension (liquid) well just before you measure a dose. Measure the liquid with a special dose-measuring spoon or medicine cup, not with a regular table spoon. If you do not have a dose-measuring device, ask your pharmacist for one.

This medication can cause unusual results with certain medical tests. Tell any doctor who treats you that you are using Erythromycin Chung I.

Take this medicine for the full prescribed length of time. Your symptoms may improve before the infection is completely cleared. Skipping doses may also increase your risk of further infection that is resistant to antibiotics. Erythromycin Chung I will not treat a viral infection such as the common cold or flu.

Store at room temperature away from moisture and heat, unless otherwise directed on the medicine label.

Erythromycin Chung I pharmacology

Pharmacokinetics of a drug can be defined as what body does to the drug after it is taken. The therapeutic result of the medicine depends upon the Pharmacokinetics of the drug. It deals with the time taken for the drug to be absorbed, metabolized, the process and chemical reactions involved in metabolism and about the excretion of the drug. All these factors are essential to deciding on the efficacy of the drug. Based on these pharmacokinetic principles, the ingredients, the Pharmaceutical company decides dose and route of administration. The concentration of the drug at the site of action which is proportional to therapeutic result inside the body depends on various pharmacokinetic reactions that occur in the body.
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Orally administered Erythromycin Chung I ethylsuccinate suspensions and Filmtab tablets are readily and reliably absorbed. Comparable serum levels (Erythromycin Chung I ethylsuccinate) of Erythromycin Chung I are achieved in the fasting and nonfasting states.

Erythromycin Chung I diffuses readily into most body fluids. Only low concentrations are normally achieved in the spinal fluid, but passage of the drug across the blood-brain barrier increases in meningitis. In the presence of normal hepatic function, Erythromycin Chung I is concentrated in the liver and excreted in the bile; the effect of hepatic dysfunction on excretion of Erythromycin Chung I by the liver into the bile is not known. Less than 5 percent of the orally administered dose of Erythromycin Chung I is excreted in active form in the urine.

Erythromycin Chung I crosses the placental barrier, but fetal plasma levels (Erythromycin Chung I ethylsuccinate) are low. The drug is excreted in human milk.

Microbiology

Erythromycin Chung I acts by inhibition of protein synthesis by binding 50 S ribosomal subunits of susceptible organisms. It does not affect nucleic acid synthesis. Antagonism has been demonstrated in vitro between Erythromycin Chung I and clindamycin, lincomycin, and chloramphenicol.

Many strains of Haemophilus influenzae are resistant to Erythromycin Chung I alone but are susceptible to Erythromycin Chung I and sulfonamides used concomitantly.

Staphylocci resistant to Erythromycin Chung I may emerge during a course of therapy.

Erythromycin Chung I has been shown to be active against most strains of the following microorganisms, both in vitro and in clinical infections as described in the INDICATIONS AND USAGE section.

Gram-positive Organisms

Corynebacterium diphtheriae

Corynebacterium minutissimum

Listeria monocytogenes

Staphylococcus aureus(resistant organisms may emerge during treatment)

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Streptococcus pyogenes

Gram-negative Organisms

Bordetella pertussis

Legionella pneumophila

Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Other Microorganisms

Chlamydia trachomatis

Entamoeba histolytica

Mycoplasma pneumoniae

Treponema pallidum

Ureaplasma urealyticum

The following in vitro data are available, but their clinical significance is unknown.

Erythromycin Chung I exhibits in vitro minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC's) of 0.5 μg/mL or less against most ( ≥ 90%) strains of the following microorganisms; however, the safety and effectiveness (Erythromycin Chung I ethylsuccinate) of Erythromycin Chung I in treating clinical infections due to these microorganisms have not been established in adequate and well controlled clinical trials.

Gram-positive Organisms

Viridans group streptococci

Gram-negative Organisms

Moraxella catarrhalis

Susceptibility Tests

Dilution Techniques

Quantitative methods are used to determine antimicrobial minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC's). These MIC's provide estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. The MIC's should be determined using a standardized procedure. Standardized procedures are based on a dilution methodrequires the use of standardized inoculum concentrations. This procedure uses paper disks impregnated with 15-μg Erythromycin Chung I to test the susceptibility of microorganisms to Erythromycin Chung I.

Reports from the laboratory providing results of the standard single-disk susceptibility test with a 15



References

  1. DailyMed. "ERYTHROMYCIN: DailyMed provides trustworthy information about marketed drugs in the United States. DailyMed is the official provider of FDA label information (package inserts).". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailyme... (accessed September 17, 2018).
  2. NCIt. "Erythromycin: NCI Thesaurus (NCIt) provides reference terminology for many systems. It covers vocabulary for clinical care, translational and basic research, and public information and administrative activities.". https://ncit.nci.nih.gov/ncitbrowser... (accessed September 17, 2018).
  3. EPA DSStox. "Erythromycin: DSSTox provides a high quality public chemistry resource for supporting improved predictive toxicology.". https://comptox.epa.gov/dashboard/ds... (accessed September 17, 2018).

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