What is the dose of your medication?
Actions of Floxabact in details
The action of the drug on the human body is called Pharmacodynamics in Medical terminology. To produce its effect and to change the pathological process that is happening the body and to reduce the symptom or cure the disease, the medicine has to function in a specific way. The changes it does to the body at cellular level gives the desired result of treating a disease. Drugs act by stimulating or inhibiting a receptor or an enzyme or a protein most of the times. Medications are produced in such a way that the ingredients target the specific site and bring about chemical changes in the body that can stop or reverse the chemical reaction which is causing the disease.
Pharmacology: Mechanism of Action: The main mechanism of action of Floxabact is the inhibition of DNA gyrase. It is 2-fold stronger than that of ofloxacin. There is not much difference between the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The activity of Floxabact is bactericidal. In the observation of bacterial morphology, bacteriolysis can be seen in the concentration around MIC.
Orally administered Floxabact is rapidly and almost completely absorbed with peak plasma concentrations being obtained within 1 hr. The absolute bioavailability is approximately 100%. Food has little effect on the absorption of Floxabact.
Distribution in Plasma: Approximately 30-40% of Floxabact is bound to serum protein. Multiple dosing with Floxabact 500 mg once daily showed neglible accumulation. There is modest but predictable accumulation of Floxabact after doses of 500 mg twice daily. Steady state is achieved within 3 days.
Penetration into Tissues and Body Fluids: Penetration into Bronchial Mucosa, Epithelial Lining Fluid (ELF): Maximum Floxabact concentrations in bronchial mucosa and ELF were 8.3 mcg/mL and 10.8 mcg/mL, respectively. These were reached approximately 1 hr after administration.
Penetration into Lung Tissue: Maximum Floxabact concentrations in lung tissues were approximately 11.3 mcg/mL and were reached between 4-6 hrs after administration.
Metabolism: Floxabact is metabolised to a very small extent, the metabolites being desmethyl-Floxabact and Floxabact N-oxide. These metabolites account for <5% of the dose excretion in urine. Floxabact is stereochemically stable and does not undergo chiral inversion.
Elimination: Following oral and IV administration, Floxabact is eliminated relatively slowly from the plasma (half-life: 6-8 hrs). Excretion is primarily by the renal route (>85% of the administered dose).
Microbiology: Floxabact is a broad-spectrum antibacterial agent against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria including anaerobes. Floxabact has shown strong antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus spp, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus hemolyticus, Enterobacter spp, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp, Serratia spp, Enterococcus spp, Proteus spp and other glucose nonfermentative gram-negative rods, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Morever, Floxabact has shown antibacterial activity against Chlamydia trachomatis. Floxabact has an excellent protective and treatment effects in mice.
How should I take Floxabact?
Take Floxabact only as directed by your doctor. Do not take more of it, do not take it more often, and do not take it for a longer time than your doctor ordered.
Floxabact comes with a Medication Guide. Read and follow the instructions carefully. Ask your doctor if you have any questions.
Floxabact oral liquid should be taken 1 hour before or 2 hours after eating. You may measure your dose with a marked measuring spoon, oral syringe, or medicine cup.
Floxabact tablets may be taken with meals or on an empty stomach.
Floxabact is best taken with a full glass (8 ounces) of water. Several additional glasses of water should be taken every day, unless otherwise directed by your doctor. Drinking extra water will help to prevent some unwanted effects of Floxabact.
Floxabact works best when there is a constant amount in the blood. To help keep the amount constant, do not miss any doses. Also, it is best to take the doses at evenly spaced times, day and night. For example, if you are to take one dose a day, try to take it at the same time each day.
If you need to take Floxabact for anthrax infection or plague, your doctor will want you to begin taking it as soon as possible after you are exposed to anthrax or bacteria causing the plague.
If you are taking aluminum or magnesium-containing antacids, iron supplements, multivitamins, didanosine (Videx®), sucralfate (Carafate®), or zinc, do not take them at the same time that you take Floxabact. It is best to take these medicines at least 2 hours before or 2 hours after taking Floxabact. These medicines may keep Floxabact from working properly.
Keep using Floxabact for the full treatment time, even if you feel better after the first few doses. Your infection may not clear up if you stop using the medicine too soon.
The dose of Floxabact will be different for different patients. Follow your doctor's orders or the directions on the label. The following information includes only the average doses of Floxabact. If your dose is different, do not change it unless your doctor tells you to do so.
The amount of medicine that you take depends on the strength of the medicine. Also, the number of doses you take each day, the time allowed between doses, and the length of time you take the medicine depend on the medical problem for which you are using the medicine.
If you miss a dose of Floxabact, take it as soon as possible. However, if it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not double doses.
Store the medicine in a closed container at room temperature, away from heat, moisture, and direct light. Keep from freezing.
Keep out of the reach of children.
Do not keep outdated medicine or medicine no longer needed.
Ask your healthcare professional how you should dispose of any medicine you do not use.
Administration of drug is important to know because the drug absorption and action varies depending on the route and time of administration of the drug. A medicine is prescribed before meals or after meals or along with meals. The specific timing of the drug intake about food is to increase its absorption and thus its efficacy. Few work well when taken in empty stomach and few medications need to be taken 1 or 2 hrs after the meal. A drug can be in the form of a tablet, a capsule which is the oral route of administration and the same can be in IV form which is used in specific cases. Other forms of drug administration can be a suppository in anal route or an inhalation route.
Take exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Do not take in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended. Follow the directions on your prescription label.
Take Floxabact with a full glass of water (8 ounces). Drink several extra glasses of fluid each day while you are taking Floxabact. You may take Floxabact tablets with or without food.
Take Floxabact oral solution (liquid) on an empty stomach 1 hour before or 2 hours after meals. Measure liquid medicine with a special dose-measuring spoon or cup, not a regular table spoon. If you do not have a dose-measuring device, ask your pharmacist for one.
Take this medication for the full prescribed length of time. Your symptoms may improve before the infection is completely cleared. Skipping doses may also increase your risk of further infection that is resistant to antibiotics. Floxabact will not treat a viral infection such as the common cold or flu.
This medication can cause you to have a false positive drug screening test. If you provide a urine sample for drug screening, tell the laboratory staff that you are taking Floxabact.
Store at room temperature away from moisture and heat. Do not allow the liquid medicine to freeze.
Pharmacokinetics of a drug can be defined as what body does to the drug after it is taken. The therapeutic result of the medicine depends upon the Pharmacokinetics of the drug. It deals with the time taken for the drug to be absorbed, metabolized, the process and chemical reactions involved in metabolism and about the excretion of the drug. All these factors are essential to deciding on the efficacy of the drug. Based on these pharmacokinetic principles, the ingredients, the Pharmaceutical company decides dose and route of administration. The concentration of the drug at the site of action which is proportional to therapeutic result inside the body depends on various pharmacokinetic reactions that occur in the body.
Mechanism Of Action
Floxabact is a member of the fluoroquinolone class of antibacterial agents.
The mean ± SD pharmacokinetic parameters of Floxabact determined under single and steady-state conditions following oral tablet, oral solution, or intravenous (IV) doses of Floxabact are summarized in Table 8.
Table 8: Mean ± SD Floxabact PK Parameters
Figure 3: Mean Floxabact Plasma Concentration vs. Time Profile: 500 mg
The mean volume of distribution of Floxabact generally ranges from 74 to 112 L after single and multiple 500 mg or 750 mg doses, indicating widespread distribution into body tissues. Floxabact reaches its peak levels in skin tissues and in blister fluid of healthy subjects at approximately 3 hours after dosing. The skin tissue biopsy to plasma AUC ratio is approximately 2 and the blister fluid to plasma AUC ratio is approximately 1 following multiple once-daily oral administration of 750 mg and 500 mg doses of Floxabact, respectively, to healthy subjects. Floxabact also penetrates well into lung tissues. Lung tissue concentrations were generally 2- to 5-fold higher than plasma concentrations and ranged from approximately 2.4 to 11.3 mcg/g over a 24-hour period after a single 500 mg oral dose.
In vitro, over a clinically relevant range (1 to 10 mcg/mL) of serum/plasma Floxabact concentrations, Floxabact is approximately 24 to 38% bound to serum proteins across all species studied, as determined by the equilibrium dialysis method. Floxabact is mainly bound to serum albumin in humans. Floxabact binding to serum proteins is independent of the drug concentration.
Floxabact is stereochemically stable in plasma and urine and does not invert metabolically to its enantiomer, D-ofloxacin. Floxabact undergoes limited metabolism in humans and is primarily excreted as unchanged drug in the urine. Following oral administration, approximately 87% of an administered dose was recovered as unchanged drug in urine within 48 hours, whereas less than 4% of the dose was recovered in feces in 72 hours. Less than 5% of an administered dose was recovered in the urine as the desmethyl and N-oxide metabolites, the only metabolites identified in humans. These metabolites have little relevant pharmacological activity.
Floxabact is excreted largely as unchanged drug in the urine. The mean terminal plasma elimination half-life of Floxabact ranges from approximately 6 to 8 hours following single or multiple doses of Floxabact given orally or intravenously. The mean apparent total body clearance and renal clearance range from approximately 144 to 226 mL/min and 96 to 142 mL/min, respectively. Renal clearance in excess of the glomerular filtration rate suggests that tubular secretion of Floxabact occurs in addition to its glomerular filtration. Concomitant administration of either cimetidine or probenecid results in approximately 24% and 35% reduction in the Floxabact renal clearance, respectively, indicating that secretion of Floxabact occurs in the renal proximal tubule. No Floxabact crystals were found in any of the urine samples freshly collected from subjects receiving Floxabact.
There are no significant differences in Floxabact pharmacokinetics between young and elderly subjects when the subjects' differences in creatinine clearance are taken into consideration. Following a 500 mg oral dose of Floxabact to healthy elderly subjects (66–80 years of age), the mean terminal plasma elimination half-life of Floxabact was about 7.6 hours, as compared to approximately 6 hours in younger adults. The difference was attributable to the variation in renal function status of the subjects and was not believed to be clinically significant. Drug absorption appears to be unaffected by age. Floxabact dose adjustment based on age alone is not necessary.
The pharmacokinetics of Floxabact following a single 7 mg/kg intravenous dose were investigated in pediatric patients ranging in age from 6 months to 16 years. Pediatric patients cleared Floxabact faster than adult patients, resulting in lower plasma exposures than adults for a given mg/kg dose. Subsequent pharmacokinetic analyses predicted that a dosage regimen of 8 mg/kg every 12 hours (not to exceed 250 mg per dose) for pediatric patients 6 months to 17 years of age would achieve comparable steady state plasma exposures (AUC0-24 and Cmax) to those observed in adult patients administered 500 mg of Floxabact once every 24 hours.
There are no significant differences in Floxabact pharmacokinetics between male and female subjects when subjects' differences in creatinine clearance are taken into consideration. Following a 500 mg oral dose of Floxabact to healthy male subjects, the mean terminal plasma elimination halflife of Floxabact was about 7.5 hours, as compared to approximately 6.1 hours in female subjects. This difference was attributable to the variation in renal function status of the male and female subjects and was not believed to be clinically significant. Drug absorption appears to be unaffected by the gender of the subjects. Dose adjustment based on gender alone is not necessary.
The effect of race on Floxabact pharmacokinetics was examined through a covariate analysis performed on data from 72 subjects: 48 white and 24 non-white. The apparent total body clearance and apparent volume of distribution were not affected by the race of the subjects.
Clearance of Floxabact is substantially reduced and plasma elimination half-life is substantially prolonged in adult patients with impaired renal function (creatinine clearance < 50 mL/min), requiring dosage adjustment in such patients to avoid accumulation. Neither hemodialysis nor continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) is effective in removal of Floxabact from the body, indicating that supplemental doses of Floxabact are not required following hemodialysis or CAPD.
Pharmacokinetic studies in hepatically impaired patients have not been conducted. Due to the limited extent of Floxabact metabolism, the pharmacokinetics of Floxabact are not expected to be affected by hepatic impairment.
The pharmacokinetics of Floxabact in patients with serious community-acquired bacterial infections are comparable to those observed in healthy subjects.
The potential for pharmacokinetic drug interactions between Floxabact and antacids, warfarin, theophylline, cyclosporine, digoxin, probenecid, and cimetidine has been evaluated.
Mechanism Of Action
Floxabact is the L-isomer of the racemate, ofloxacin, a quinolone antimicrobial agent. The antibacterial activity of ofloxacin resides primarily in the L-isomer. The mechanism of action of Floxabact and other fluoroquinolone antimicrobials involves inhibition of bacterial topoisomerase IV and DNA gyrase (both of which are type II topoisomerases), enzymes required for DNA replication, transcription, repair and recombination.
Mechanism of Resistance
Fluoroquinolone resistance can arise through mutations in defined regions of DNA gyrase or topoisomerase IV, termed the Quinolone-Resistance Determining Regions (QRDRs), or through altered efflux.
Fluoroquinolones, including Floxabact, differ in chemical structure and mode of action from aminoglycosides, macrolides and β-lactam antibiotics, including penicillins. Fluoroquinolones may, therefore, be active against bacteria resistant to these antimicrobials.
Resistance to Floxabact due to spontaneous mutation in vitro is a rare occurrence (range: 10 ed. CLSI Document M45-A2, 2010.
ReviewsThe results of a survey conducted on ndrugs.com for Floxabact are given in detail below. The results of the survey conducted are based on the impressions and views of the website users and consumers taking Floxabact. We implore you to kindly base your medical condition or therapeutic choices on the result or test conducted by a physician or licensed medical practitioners.
Consumer reported administrationNo survey data has been collected yet
Information checked by Dr. Sachin Kumar, MD Pharmacology