Gentamicin Overdose

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What happens if I overdose Gentamicin?

Contact 1-800-222-1222 (the American Association of Poison Control Centers), your local, or emergency room immediately.

Proper storage of Gentamicin solution:

Gentamicin solution is usually handled and stored by a health care provider. If you are using Gentamicin solution at home, store Gentamicin solution as directed by your pharmacist or health care provider. Keep Gentamicin solution out of the reach of children and away from pets.

Overdose of Gentamicin in details

When a dose is taken in higher dose than the recommended doses, it is called Overdose. Overdose always needs a clinical supervision. Any medicine or drug when consumed in Overdose produces untoward side effects on one or various organs in the body. A medicine is excreted in the kidney or metabolized in the liver most of the times. This process goes without any hurdles when taken in normal dose, but when taken in an overdose, the body is not able to metabolize it or send it out properly which causes the effects of anoverdose.
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In the event of overdosage or toxic reactions, hemodialysis may aid in the removal of Gentamicin from the blood, and is especially important if renal function is, or becomes compromised. The rate of removal of Gentamicin is considerably less by peritoneal dialysis than it is by hemodialysis.

What should I avoid while taking Gentamicin?

There are no restrictions on food, beverages, or activity while taking Gentamicin unless otherwise directed by your doctor.

Gentamicin warnings

Warnings are a mix of Precautions. Contraindications and interactions and serious harmful effects associated with the medicine intake. A diabetic or Hypertensive patient need to be warned about few drug interactions. A known hypersensitivity patient needs to be careful about the reactions or anaphylactic shock. A pregnant woman or a breastfeeding woman should be warned of certain medications. A Hepatitis [liver disease] patient or a cardiac patient should avoid few drugs.

Aminoglycosides can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Aminoglycoside antibiotics cross the placenta, and there have been several reports of total irreversible bilateral congenital deafness in children whose mothers received streptomycin during pregnancy.

Animal reproduction studies conducted on rats and rabbits did not reveal evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to Gentamicin. It is also not known whether Gentamicin can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproduction capacity. Serious side effects to mother, fetus, or newborn have not been reported in treatment of pregnant women with other aminoglycosides. If Gentamicin is used during pregnancy or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking Gentamicin, she should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus.

Contains sodium metabisulfite, a sulfite that may cause allergic-type reactions including anaphylactic symptoms and life-threatening or less severe asthmatic episodes in certain susceptible people. The overall prevalence of sulfite sensitivity in the general population is unknown and probably low. Sulfite sensitivity is seen more frequently in asthmatic than in nonasthmatic people.

What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking Gentamicin?

In deciding to use a medicine, the risks of taking the medicine must be weighed against the good it will do. This is a decision you and your doctor will make. For Gentamicin, the following should be considered:

Allergies

Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to Gentamicin or any other medicines. Also tell your health care professional if you have any other types of allergies, such as to foods, dyes, preservatives, or animals. For non-prescription products, read the label or package ingredients carefully.

Pediatric

Appropriate studies performed to date have not demonstrated pediatric-specific problems that would limit the usefulness of Gentamicin injection in children. However, Gentamicin should be used with caution in premature and newborn infants.

Geriatric

No information is available on the relationship of age to the effects of Gentamicin injection in geriatric patients. However, elderly patients are more likely to have kidney problems, which may require caution and an adjustment in the dose for patients receiving Gentamicin injection.

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category Explanation
All Trimesters D Studies in pregnant women have demonstrated a risk to the fetus. However, the benefits of therapy in a life threatening situation or a serious disease, may outweigh the potential risk.

Breast Feeding

Studies in women suggest that this medication poses minimal risk to the infant when used during breastfeeding.

Interactions with Medicines

Although certain medicines should not be used together at all, in other cases two different medicines may be used together even if an interaction might occur. In these cases, your doctor may want to change the dose, or other precautions may be necessary. When you are receiving Gentamicin, it is especially important that your healthcare professional know if you are taking any of the medicines listed below. The following interactions have been selected on the basis of their potential significance and are not necessarily all-inclusive.

Using Gentamicin with any of the following medicines is not recommended. Your doctor may decide not to treat you with this medication or change some of the other medicines you take.

Using Gentamicin with any of the following medicines is usually not recommended, but may be required in some cases. If both medicines are prescribed together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use one or both of the medicines.

Using Gentamicin with any of the following medicines may cause an increased risk of certain side effects, but using both drugs may be the best treatment for you. If both medicines are prescribed together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use one or both of the medicines.

Interactions with Food/Tobacco/Alcohol

Certain medicines should not be used at or around the time of eating food or eating certain types of food since interactions may occur. Using alcohol or tobacco with certain medicines may also cause interactions to occur. Discuss with your healthcare professional the use of your medicine with food, alcohol, or tobacco.

Other Medical Problems

The presence of other medical problems may affect the use of Gentamicin. Make sure you tell your doctor if you have any other medical problems, especially:

Gentamicin precautions

Certain people who are very sick or very old or who are sensitive show an exacerbation of side effect of the drug which can turn dangerous at times. So, it is very important to remember the precautions while taking the medicine. Pregnancy and Breastfeeding are also special categories wherein extra care or precaution is needed when taking a drug. Few patients may have a hypersensitivity reaction to few medications, and that can be life-threatening rarely. Penicillin hypersensitivity is one example. Diarrhea, rashes are few other symptoms which need a watch. A patient with other co-existing diseases like liver disease, heart disease, kidney disease should take special precautions.
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Neurotoxic and nephrotoxic antibiotics may be almost completely absorbed from body surfaces (except the urinary bladder) after local irrigation and after topical application during surgical procedures. The potential toxic effects of antibiotics administered in this fashion (neuromuscular blockade, respiratory paralysis, oto- and nephrotoxicity) should be considered.

Increased nephrotoxicity has been reported following concomitant administration of aminoglycoside antibiotics and cephalosporins.

Neuromuscular blockade and respiratory paralysis have been reported in the cat receiving high doses (40 mg/kg) of Gentamicin. The possibility of these phenomena occurring in man should be considered if aminoglycosides are administered by any route to patients receiving anesthetics, or to patients receiving neuromuscular blocking agents, such as succinylcholine, tubocurarine, or decamethonium, or in patients receiving massive transfusions of citrate anticoagulated blood. If neuromuscular blockade occurs, calcium salts may reverse it.

Aminoglycosides should be used with caution in patients with neuromuscular disorders, such as myasthenia gravis or parkinsonism, since these drugs may aggravate muscle weakness because of their potential curare-like effects on the neuromuscular junction. During or following Gentamicin therapy, paresthesias, tetany, positive Chvostek and Trousseau signs and mental confusion have been described in patients with hypomagnesemia, hypocalcemia and hypokalemia. When this has occurred in infants, tetany and muscle weakness has been described. Both adults and infants required appropriate corrective electrolyte therapy.

Elderly patients may have reduced renal function which may not be evident in the results of routine screening tests, such as BUN or serum creatinine. A creatinine clearance determination may be more useful. Monitoring of renal function during treatment with Gentamicin, as with other aminoglycosides, is particularly important in such patients. A Fanconi-like syndrome, with aminoaciduria and metabolic acidosis has been reported in some adults and infants being given Gentamicin injections.

Cross-allergenicity among aminoglycosides has been demonstrated.

Patients should be well hydrated during treatment.

Although the in vitro mixing of Gentamicin and carbenicillin results in a rapid and significant inactivation of Gentamicin, this interaction has not been demonstrated in patients with normal renal function who received both drugs by different routes of administration. A reduction in Gentamicin serum half-life has been reported in patients with severe renal impairment receiving carbenicillin concomitantly with Gentamicin.

Treatment with Gentamicin may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms. If this occurs, appropriate therapy is indicated. See box regarding concurrent use of potent diuretics and regarding concurrent and/or sequential use of other neurotoxic and/or nephrotoxic antibiotics and for other essential information.

Do not administer unless solution is clear and package undamaged.

Pregnancy Category D.

General

Prescribing Gentamicin in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

Information for Patients

Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including Gentamicin should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When Gentamicin is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by Gentamicin or other antibacterial drugs in the future.

What happens if I miss a dose of Gentamicin?

When you miss a dose, you should take it as soon as you remember, but you should take care that it should be well spaced from the next dose. You should not take an extra dose at the time of the second dose as it will become a double dose. The double dose can give unwanted side effects, so be careful. In chronic conditions or when you have a serious health issue, if you miss a dose, you should inform your health care provider and ask his suggestion.

Contact your doctor if a dose is missed.


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References

  1. DailyMed. "GENTAMICIN SULFATE: DailyMed provides trustworthy information about marketed drugs in the United States. DailyMed is the official provider of FDA label information (package inserts).". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailyme... (accessed September 17, 2018).
  2. DrugBank. "gentamicin". http://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00798 (accessed September 17, 2018).
  3. MeSH. "Anti-Bacterial Agents". https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/68... (accessed September 17, 2018).

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