Hydrocortisone Actions

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Actions of Hydrocortisone in details

infoThe action of the drug on the human body is called Pharmacodynamics in Medical terminology. To produce its effect and to change the pathological process that is happening the body and to reduce the symptom or cure the disease, the medicine has to function in a specific way. The changes it does to the body at cellular level gives the desired result of treating a disease. Drugs act by stimulating or inhibiting a receptor or an enzyme or a protein most of the times. Medications are produced in such a way that the ingredients target the specific site and bring about chemical changes in the body that can stop or reverse the chemical reaction which is causing the disease.
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Hydrocortisone Micronised Xepa-Soul Pattinson is a glucocorticosteroid. Hydrocortisone Micronised Xepa-Soul Pattinson inhibits the function of leukocytes and tissue macrophages. The migration of leukocytes in the area of inflammation. Impair the capacity of macrophages to phagocytosis and the formation of interleukin-1. Contributes to the stabilization of lysosomal membranes, thereby reducing the concentration of proteolytic enzymes in the field of inflammation. Decreases capillary permeability due to histamine release. Inhibits activity of fibroblasts and collagen formation.

Hydrocortisone Micronised Xepa-Soul Pattinson inhibits the activity of phospholipase A2 which leads to suppression of the synthesis of prostaglandins and leukotrienes. Suppresses the release of COX (mainly COX-2), which also helps to reduce production of prostaglandins.

Reduces the number of circulating lymphocytes (T-and B-cells), monocytes, eosinophils and basophils as a result of their displacement from the vascular bed to lymphoid tissue, suppresses the formation of antibodies.

Hydrocortisone suppresses the release of pituitary ACTH and beta-lipotropin but does not reduce the level of circulating beta-endorphin. Inhibits the secretion of TSH and FSH.

With direct application of the receptacles has a vasoconstrictor effect.

Hydrocortisone has a pronounced dose-dependent effect on the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Stimulates gluconeogenesis, promotes the capture of amino acids by the liver and kidneys and increases the activity of enzymes of gluconeogenesis. In the liver of Hydrocortisone increases glycogen deposition by stimulating the activity of glycogen synthase and synthesis of glucose from the products of protein metabolism. Increased blood glucose activates the secretion of insulin.

Hydrocortisone suppresses the seizure of glucose by fat cells that leads to activation of lipolysis. However, due to increased secretion of insulin is stimulation of lipogenesis which leads to the accumulation of fat.

Hydrocortisone Micronised Xepa-Soul Pattinson has catabolic effect in lymphoid and connective tissue, muscle, adipose tissue, skin, bone tissue; to a lesser extent than the mineralocorticoid affects the processes of water and electrolyte metabolism: promotes the excretion of potassium ions and calcium, delay in the body of sodium and water. Osteoporosis and Itsenko-Cushing's syndrome are the main factors limiting the long-term therapy of GCS. As a result of catabolic actions may suppress growth in children.

In high doses Hydrocortisone may increase the excitability of brain tissue and contributes to lowering the threshold of convulsive readiness. It stimulates the excessive production of hydrochloric acid and pepsin in the stomach that promotes the development of peptic ulcers.

For systems use therapeutic activity of Hydrocortisone caused by anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, immunosuppressive and antiproliferative action. When external and local application the therapeutic activity of Hydrocortisone is due to anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic and antiexudative (due to vasoconstrictor effect) action. For anti-inflammatory activity this medicine is 4 times weaker than prednisolone, at mineralocorticoid activity is superior to other GCS.

How should I take Hydrocortisone?

Use Hydrocortisone valerate exactly as directed by your doctor. Do not use it for any other condition without first checking with your doctor. Hydrocortisone valerate may cause unwanted effects if it is used too much, because more of it is absorbed into the body through the skin.

Wash your hands with soap and water before and after using Hydrocortisone valerate.

Be very careful not to get Hydrocortisone valerate in your eyes. Wash your hands after using your finger to apply the medicine. If you accidentally get Hydrocortisone valerate in your eyes, flush them with water.

Apply a thin layer of Hydrocortisone valerate to the affected area of the skin. Rub it in gently.

Unless otherwise directed by your doctor, do not apply Hydrocortisone valerate to open wounds, burns, or broken or inflamed skin.

Hydrocortisone valerate should only be used for problems being treated by your doctor. Check with your doctor before using it for other problems, especially if you think that an infection may be present. Hydrocortisone valerate should not be used to treat certain kinds of skin infections or serious problems, such as severe burns.

Do not bandage or otherwise wrap the skin being treated unless directed to do so by your doctor.

If your doctor has ordered an occlusive dressing (airtight covering, such as kitchen plastic wrap or a special patch) to be applied over Hydrocortisone valerate, make sure you know how to apply it. Since occlusive dressings increase the amount of medicine absorbed through your skin and the possibility of side effects, use them only as directed. If you have any questions about this, check with your doctor.

Do not use Hydrocortisone valerate on the face, groin, or underarms unless directed to do so by your doctor.

Dosing

The dose of Hydrocortisone valerate will be different for different patients. Follow your doctor's orders or the directions on the label. The following information includes only the average doses of Hydrocortisone valerate. If your dose is different, do not change it unless your doctor tells you to do so.

The amount of medicine that you take depends on the strength of the medicine. Also, the number of doses you take each day, the time allowed between doses, and the length of time you take the medicine depend on the medical problem for which you are using the medicine.

  • For topical dosage forms (cream and ointment):
    • For redness, itching, and swelling of the skin:
      • Adults—Apply to the affected area of the skin two or three times a day.
      • Children—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.

Missed Dose

If you miss a dose of Hydrocortisone valerate, apply it as soon as possible. However, if it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule.

Storage

Store the medicine in a closed container at room temperature, away from heat, moisture, and direct light. Keep from freezing.

Keep out of the reach of children.

Do not keep outdated medicine or medicine no longer needed.

Ask your healthcare professional how you should dispose of any medicine you do not use.

Hydrocortisone administration

infoAdministration of drug is important to know because the drug absorption and action varies depending on the route and time of administration of the drug. A medicine is prescribed before meals or after meals or along with meals. The specific timing of the drug intake about food is to increase its absorption and thus its efficacy. Few work well when taken in empty stomach and few medications need to be taken 1 or 2 hrs after the meal. A drug can be in the form of a tablet, a capsule which is the oral route of administration and the same can be in IV form which is used in specific cases. Other forms of drug administration can be a suppository in anal route or an inhalation route.
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Use this medication exactly as directed on the label, or as it has been prescribed by your doctor. Do not use the medication in larger or smaller amounts, or use it for longer than recommended.

Hydrocortisone topical will not treat a bacterial, fungal, or viral skin infection.

Wash your hands before and after each application, unless you are using Hydrocortisone topical to treat a hand condition.

Apply a small amount to the affected area and rub it gently into the skin.

Avoid using this medication on your face, near your eyes or mouth, or on body areas where you have skin folds or thin skin.

Do not cover treated skin areas with a bandage or other covering unless your doctor has told you to. If you are treating the diaper area of a baby, do not use plastic pants or tight-fitting diapers. Covering the skin that is treated with Hydrocortisone topical can increase the amount of the drug your skin absorbs, which may lead to unwanted side effects. Follow your doctor's instructions.

Contact your doctor if your condition does not improve or if it gets worse after using this medication for several days. It is important to use Hydrocortisone topical regularly to get the most benefit.

Store Hydrocortisone topical at room temperature away from moisture and heat.

Hydrocortisone pharmacology

infoPharmacokinetics of a drug can be defined as what body does to the drug after it is taken. The therapeutic result of the medicine depends upon the Pharmacokinetics of the drug. It deals with the time taken for the drug to be absorbed, metabolized, the process and chemical reactions involved in metabolism and about the excretion of the drug. All these factors are essential to deciding on the efficacy of the drug. Based on these pharmacokinetic principles, the ingredients, the Pharmaceutical company decides dose and route of administration. The concentration of the drug at the site of action which is proportional to therapeutic result inside the body depends on various pharmacokinetic reactions that occur in the body.
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Mechanism of Action

Topical corticosteroids share anti-inflammatory, antipruritic, and vasoconstrictive properties. The mechanism of the antiinflammatory activity of the topical corticosteroids is unclear. However, corticosteroids are thought to act by the induction of phospholipase A2 inhibitory proteins, collectively called lipocortins. It is postulated that these proteins control the biosynthesis of potent mediators of inflammation such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes by inhibiting the release of their common precursor, arachidonic acid. Arachidonic acid is released from membrane phospholipids by phospholipase A2.

Pharmacokinetics

The extent of percutaneous absorption of topical corticosteroids is determined by many factors, including the vehicle, the integrity of the epidermal barrier, and the use of occlusive dressings.

Topical corticosteroids can be absorbed through normal intact skin. Inflammation and/or other disease processes in the skin, occlusive dressings, or widespread application may increase percutaneous absorption and increase the risk of HPA Axis suppression.

The vasoconstrictor assay showed that Hydrocortisone (Hydrocortisone butyrate) had a more pronounced skin blanching effect than Locoid Cream, suggesting greater percutaneous absorption from the former.

Once absorbed through the skin, topical corticosteroids are handled through pharmacokinetic pathways similar to systemically administered corticosteroids.

Corticosteroids are bound to plasma proteins in varying degrees.

Corticosteroids are metabolized primarily in the liver and are then excreted by the kidneys.

Some of the topical corticosteroids and their metabolites are also excreted into the bile.

Clinical Studies

Pediatric Atopic Dermatitis

In a multicenter, randomized, vehicle-controlled trial of 264 pediatric subjects 3 months to 18 years of age with mild to moderate atopic dermatitis, Hydrocortisone (Hydrocortisone butyrate) or vehicle was applied twice daily for up to four weeks. Treatment success was assessed at day 29 (after 28 days of treatment) and was defined as the proportion of patients who achieved both “clear” or “almost clear” and at least a two grade improvement from baseline on a 5-point Physician's Global Assessment (PGA) scale.

Study results are shown in Table 3.

TABLE 3 : Efficacy Results at Day 29 in Pediatric Subjects

Hydrocortisone

(n=131)

Vehicle

(n=133)

Number (%) successes 82 (63%) 37 (28%)



References

  1. DailyMed. "CIPROFLOXACIN HYDROCHLORIDE; HYDROCORTISONE: DailyMed provides trustworthy information about marketed drugs in the United States. DailyMed is the official provider of FDA label information (package inserts).". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailyme... (accessed September 17, 2018).
  2. NCIt. "Therapeutic Hydrocortisone: NCI Thesaurus (NCIt) provides reference terminology for many systems. It covers vocabulary for clinical care, translational and basic research, and public information and administrative activities.". https://ncit.nci.nih.gov/ncitbrowser... (accessed September 17, 2018).
  3. EPA DSStox. "Hydrocortisone: DSSTox provides a high quality public chemistry resource for supporting improved predictive toxicology.". https://comptox.epa.gov/dashboard/ds... (accessed September 17, 2018).

Reviews

The results of a survey conducted on ndrugs.com for Hydrocortisone are given in detail below. The results of the survey conducted are based on the impressions and views of the website users and consumers taking Hydrocortisone. We implore you to kindly base your medical condition or therapeutic choices on the result or test conducted by a physician or licensed medical practitioners.

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Information checked by Dr. Sachin Kumar, MD Pharmacology

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