Levofloxacina B. Braun Actions

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Actions of Levofloxacina B. Braun in details

infoThe action of the drug on the human body is called Pharmacodynamics in Medical terminology. To produce its effect and to change the pathological process that is happening the body and to reduce the symptom or cure the disease, the medicine has to function in a specific way. The changes it does to the body at cellular level gives the desired result of treating a disease. Drugs act by stimulating or inhibiting a receptor or an enzyme or a protein most of the times. Medications are produced in such a way that the ingredients target the specific site and bring about chemical changes in the body that can stop or reverse the chemical reaction which is causing the disease.
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Pharmacology: Mechanism of Action: The main mechanism of action of Levofloxacina B. Braun is the inhibition of DNA gyrase. It is 2-fold stronger than that of ofloxacin. There is not much difference between the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The activity of Levofloxacina B. Braun is bactericidal. In the observation of bacterial morphology, bacteriolysis can be seen in the concentration around MIC.

Pharmacokinetics: Absorption:

Orally administered Levofloxacina B. Braun is rapidly and almost completely absorbed with peak plasma concentrations being obtained within 1 hr. The absolute bioavailability is approximately 100%. Food has little effect on the absorption of Levofloxacina B. Braun.

Distribution in Plasma: Approximately 30-40% of Levofloxacina B. Braun is bound to serum protein. Multiple dosing with Levofloxacina B. Braun 500 mg once daily showed neglible accumulation. There is modest but predictable accumulation of Levofloxacina B. Braun after doses of 500 mg twice daily. Steady state is achieved within 3 days.

Penetration into Tissues and Body Fluids: Penetration into Bronchial Mucosa, Epithelial Lining Fluid (ELF): Maximum Levofloxacina B. Braun concentrations in bronchial mucosa and ELF were 8.3 mcg/mL and 10.8 mcg/mL, respectively. These were reached approximately 1 hr after administration.

Penetration into Lung Tissue: Maximum Levofloxacina B. Braun concentrations in lung tissues were approximately 11.3 mcg/mL and were reached between 4-6 hrs after administration.

Metabolism: Levofloxacina B. Braun is metabolised to a very small extent, the metabolites being desmethyl-Levofloxacina B. Braun and Levofloxacina B. Braun N-oxide. These metabolites account for <5% of the dose excretion in urine. Levofloxacina B. Braun is stereochemically stable and does not undergo chiral inversion.

Elimination: Following oral and IV administration, Levofloxacina B. Braun is eliminated relatively slowly from the plasma (half-life: 6-8 hrs). Excretion is primarily by the renal route (>85% of the administered dose).

Microbiology: Levofloxacina B. Braun is a broad-spectrum antibacterial agent against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria including anaerobes. Levofloxacina B. Braun has shown strong antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus spp, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus hemolyticus, Enterobacter spp, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp, Serratia spp, Enterococcus spp, Proteus spp and other glucose nonfermentative gram-negative rods, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Morever, Levofloxacina B. Braun has shown antibacterial activity against Chlamydia trachomatis. Levofloxacina B. Braun has an excellent protective and treatment effects in mice.

How should I take Levofloxacina B. Braun?

Take Levofloxacina B. Braun only as directed by your doctor. Do not take more of it, do not take it more often, and do not take it for a longer time than your doctor ordered.

Levofloxacina B. Braun comes with a Medication Guide. Read and follow the instructions carefully. Ask your doctor if you have any questions.

Levofloxacina B. Braun oral liquid should be taken 1 hour before or 2 hours after eating. You may measure your dose with a marked measuring spoon, oral syringe, or medicine cup.

Levofloxacina B. Braun tablets may be taken with meals or on an empty stomach.

Levofloxacina B. Braun is best taken with a full glass (8 ounces) of water. Several additional glasses of water should be taken every day, unless otherwise directed by your doctor. Drinking extra water will help to prevent some unwanted effects of Levofloxacina B. Braun.

Levofloxacina B. Braun works best when there is a constant amount in the blood. To help keep the amount constant, do not miss any doses. Also, it is best to take the doses at evenly spaced times, day and night. For example, if you are to take one dose a day, try to take it at the same time each day.

If you need to take Levofloxacina B. Braun for anthrax infection or plague, your doctor will want you to begin taking it as soon as possible after you are exposed to anthrax or bacteria causing the plague.

If you are taking aluminum or magnesium-containing antacids, iron supplements, multivitamins, didanosine (Videx®), sucralfate (Carafate®), or zinc, do not take them at the same time that you take Levofloxacina B. Braun. It is best to take these medicines at least 2 hours before or 2 hours after taking Levofloxacina B. Braun. These medicines may keep Levofloxacina B. Braun from working properly.

Keep using Levofloxacina B. Braun for the full treatment time, even if you feel better after the first few doses. Your infection may not clear up if you stop using the medicine too soon.

Dosing

The dose of Levofloxacina B. Braun will be different for different patients. Follow your doctor's orders or the directions on the label. The following information includes only the average doses of Levofloxacina B. Braun. If your dose is different, do not change it unless your doctor tells you to do so.

The amount of medicine that you take depends on the strength of the medicine. Also, the number of doses you take each day, the time allowed between doses, and the length of time you take the medicine depend on the medical problem for which you are using the medicine.

  • For oral dosage forms (oral solution or tablets):
    • For treatment of an infection:
      • Adults—250 to 750 milligrams (mg) once a day.
      • Children—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.
    • For preventing anthrax infection:
      • Adults—500 milligrams (mg) once a day.
      • Children 6 months of age and older and weighing more than 50 kilograms (kg)—500 mg once a day.
      • Children 6 months of age and older and weighing less than 50 kg—Dose is based on body weight and must be determined by your doctor. The dose is usually 8 mg per kg of body weight per dose, given two times a day. However, the dose is usually not more than 250 mg.
      • Infants younger than 6 months of age—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.
    • For treatment and prevention of plague:
      • Adults—500 milligrams (mg) once a day.
      • Children 6 months of age and older, weighing more than 50 kilograms (kg)—500 mg once a day.
      • Children 6 months of age and older, weighing less than 50 kg—Dose is based on body weight and must be determined by your doctor. The dose is usually 8 mg per kg of body weight per dose, given two times a day. However, the dose is usually not more than 250 mg.
      • Infants younger than 6 months of age—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.

Missed Dose

If you miss a dose of Levofloxacina B. Braun, take it as soon as possible. However, if it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not double doses.

Storage

Store the medicine in a closed container at room temperature, away from heat, moisture, and direct light. Keep from freezing.

Keep out of the reach of children.

Do not keep outdated medicine or medicine no longer needed.

Ask your healthcare professional how you should dispose of any medicine you do not use.

Levofloxacina B. Braun administration

infoAdministration of drug is important to know because the drug absorption and action varies depending on the route and time of administration of the drug. A medicine is prescribed before meals or after meals or along with meals. The specific timing of the drug intake about food is to increase its absorption and thus its efficacy. Few work well when taken in empty stomach and few medications need to be taken 1 or 2 hrs after the meal. A drug can be in the form of a tablet, a capsule which is the oral route of administration and the same can be in IV form which is used in specific cases. Other forms of drug administration can be a suppository in anal route or an inhalation route.
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Take exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Do not take in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended. Follow the directions on your prescription label.

Take Levofloxacina B. Braun with a full glass of water (8 ounces). Drink several extra glasses of fluid each day while you are taking Levofloxacina B. Braun. You may take Levofloxacina B. Braun tablets with or without food.

Take Levofloxacina B. Braun oral solution (liquid) on an empty stomach 1 hour before or 2 hours after meals. Measure liquid medicine with a special dose-measuring spoon or cup, not a regular table spoon. If you do not have a dose-measuring device, ask your pharmacist for one.

Take this medication for the full prescribed length of time. Your symptoms may improve before the infection is completely cleared. Skipping doses may also increase your risk of further infection that is resistant to antibiotics. Levofloxacina B. Braun will not treat a viral infection such as the common cold or flu.

This medication can cause you to have a false positive drug screening test. If you provide a urine sample for drug screening, tell the laboratory staff that you are taking Levofloxacina B. Braun.

Store at room temperature away from moisture and heat. Do not allow the liquid medicine to freeze.

Levofloxacina B. Braun pharmacology

infoPharmacokinetics of a drug can be defined as what body does to the drug after it is taken. The therapeutic result of the medicine depends upon the Pharmacokinetics of the drug. It deals with the time taken for the drug to be absorbed, metabolized, the process and chemical reactions involved in metabolism and about the excretion of the drug. All these factors are essential to deciding on the efficacy of the drug. Based on these pharmacokinetic principles, the ingredients, the Pharmaceutical company decides dose and route of administration. The concentration of the drug at the site of action which is proportional to therapeutic result inside the body depends on various pharmacokinetic reactions that occur in the body.
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Mechanism Of Action

Levofloxacina B. Braun is a member of the fluoroquinolone class of antibacterial agents.

Pharmacokinetics

The mean ± SD pharmacokinetic parameters of Levofloxacina B. Braun determined under single and steady-state conditions following oral tablet, oral solution, or intravenous (IV) doses of Levofloxacina B. Braun are summarized in Table 8.

Table 8: Mean ± SD Levofloxacina B. Braun PK Parameters

Figure 3: Mean Levofloxacina B. Braun Plasma Concentration vs. Time Profile: 500 mg

Distribution

The mean volume of distribution of Levofloxacina B. Braun generally ranges from 74 to 112 L after single and multiple 500 mg or 750 mg doses, indicating widespread distribution into body tissues. Levofloxacina B. Braun reaches its peak levels in skin tissues and in blister fluid of healthy subjects at approximately 3 hours after dosing. The skin tissue biopsy to plasma AUC ratio is approximately 2 and the blister fluid to plasma AUC ratio is approximately 1 following multiple once-daily oral administration of 750 mg and 500 mg doses of Levofloxacina B. Braun, respectively, to healthy subjects. Levofloxacina B. Braun also penetrates well into lung tissues. Lung tissue concentrations were generally 2- to 5-fold higher than plasma concentrations and ranged from approximately 2.4 to 11.3 mcg/g over a 24-hour period after a single 500 mg oral dose.

In vitro, over a clinically relevant range (1 to 10 mcg/mL) of serum/plasma Levofloxacina B. Braun concentrations, Levofloxacina B. Braun is approximately 24 to 38% bound to serum proteins across all species studied, as determined by the equilibrium dialysis method. Levofloxacina B. Braun is mainly bound to serum albumin in humans. Levofloxacina B. Braun binding to serum proteins is independent of the drug concentration.

Metabolism

Levofloxacina B. Braun is stereochemically stable in plasma and urine and does not invert metabolically to its enantiomer, D-ofloxacin. Levofloxacina B. Braun undergoes limited metabolism in humans and is primarily excreted as unchanged drug in the urine. Following oral administration, approximately 87% of an administered dose was recovered as unchanged drug in urine within 48 hours, whereas less than 4% of the dose was recovered in feces in 72 hours. Less than 5% of an administered dose was recovered in the urine as the desmethyl and N-oxide metabolites, the only metabolites identified in humans. These metabolites have little relevant pharmacological activity.

Excretion

Levofloxacina B. Braun is excreted largely as unchanged drug in the urine. The mean terminal plasma elimination half-life of Levofloxacina B. Braun ranges from approximately 6 to 8 hours following single or multiple doses of Levofloxacina B. Braun given orally or intravenously. The mean apparent total body clearance and renal clearance range from approximately 144 to 226 mL/min and 96 to 142 mL/min, respectively. Renal clearance in excess of the glomerular filtration rate suggests that tubular secretion of Levofloxacina B. Braun occurs in addition to its glomerular filtration. Concomitant administration of either cimetidine or probenecid results in approximately 24% and 35% reduction in the Levofloxacina B. Braun renal clearance, respectively, indicating that secretion of Levofloxacina B. Braun occurs in the renal proximal tubule. No Levofloxacina B. Braun crystals were found in any of the urine samples freshly collected from subjects receiving Levofloxacina B. Braun.

Geriatric

There are no significant differences in Levofloxacina B. Braun pharmacokinetics between young and elderly subjects when the subjects' differences in creatinine clearance are taken into consideration. Following a 500 mg oral dose of Levofloxacina B. Braun to healthy elderly subjects (66–80 years of age), the mean terminal plasma elimination half-life of Levofloxacina B. Braun was about 7.6 hours, as compared to approximately 6 hours in younger adults. The difference was attributable to the variation in renal function status of the subjects and was not believed to be clinically significant. Drug absorption appears to be unaffected by age. Levofloxacina B. Braun dose adjustment based on age alone is not necessary.

Pediatrics

The pharmacokinetics of Levofloxacina B. Braun following a single 7 mg/kg intravenous dose were investigated in pediatric patients ranging in age from 6 months to 16 years. Pediatric patients cleared Levofloxacina B. Braun faster than adult patients, resulting in lower plasma exposures than adults for a given mg/kg dose. Subsequent pharmacokinetic analyses predicted that a dosage regimen of 8 mg/kg every 12 hours (not to exceed 250 mg per dose) for pediatric patients 6 months to 17 years of age would achieve comparable steady state plasma exposures (AUC0-24 and Cmax) to those observed in adult patients administered 500 mg of Levofloxacina B. Braun once every 24 hours.

Gender

There are no significant differences in Levofloxacina B. Braun pharmacokinetics between male and female subjects when subjects' differences in creatinine clearance are taken into consideration. Following a 500 mg oral dose of Levofloxacina B. Braun to healthy male subjects, the mean terminal plasma elimination halflife of Levofloxacina B. Braun was about 7.5 hours, as compared to approximately 6.1 hours in female subjects. This difference was attributable to the variation in renal function status of the male and female subjects and was not believed to be clinically significant. Drug absorption appears to be unaffected by the gender of the subjects. Dose adjustment based on gender alone is not necessary.

Race

The effect of race on Levofloxacina B. Braun pharmacokinetics was examined through a covariate analysis performed on data from 72 subjects: 48 white and 24 non-white. The apparent total body clearance and apparent volume of distribution were not affected by the race of the subjects.

Renal Impairment

Clearance of Levofloxacina B. Braun is substantially reduced and plasma elimination half-life is substantially prolonged in adult patients with impaired renal function (creatinine clearance < 50 mL/min), requiring dosage adjustment in such patients to avoid accumulation. Neither hemodialysis nor continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) is effective in removal of Levofloxacina B. Braun from the body, indicating that supplemental doses of Levofloxacina B. Braun are not required following hemodialysis or CAPD.

Hepatic Impairment

Pharmacokinetic studies in hepatically impaired patients have not been conducted. Due to the limited extent of Levofloxacina B. Braun metabolism, the pharmacokinetics of Levofloxacina B. Braun are not expected to be affected by hepatic impairment.

Bacterial Infection

The pharmacokinetics of Levofloxacina B. Braun in patients with serious community-acquired bacterial infections are comparable to those observed in healthy subjects.

Drug-Drug Interactions

The potential for pharmacokinetic drug interactions between Levofloxacina B. Braun and antacids, warfarin, theophylline, cyclosporine, digoxin, probenecid, and cimetidine has been evaluated.

Microbiology

Mechanism Of Action

Levofloxacina B. Braun is the L-isomer of the racemate, ofloxacin, a quinolone antimicrobial agent. The antibacterial activity of ofloxacin resides primarily in the L-isomer. The mechanism of action of Levofloxacina B. Braun and other fluoroquinolone antimicrobials involves inhibition of bacterial topoisomerase IV and DNA gyrase (both of which are type II topoisomerases), enzymes required for DNA replication, transcription, repair and recombination.

Mechanism of Resistance

Fluoroquinolone resistance can arise through mutations in defined regions of DNA gyrase or topoisomerase IV, termed the Quinolone-Resistance Determining Regions (QRDRs), or through altered efflux.

Fluoroquinolones, including Levofloxacina B. Braun, differ in chemical structure and mode of action from aminoglycosides, macrolides and β-lactam antibiotics, including penicillins. Fluoroquinolones may, therefore, be active against bacteria resistant to these antimicrobials.

Resistance to Levofloxacina B. Braun due to spontaneous mutation in vitro is a rare occurrence (range: 10 ed. CLSI Document M45-A2, 2010.



References

  1. DailyMed. "LEVOFLOXACIN: DailyMed provides trustworthy information about marketed drugs in the United States. DailyMed is the official provider of FDA label information (package inserts).". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailyme... (accessed September 17, 2018).
  2. NCIt. "Levofloxacin: NCI Thesaurus (NCIt) provides reference terminology for many systems. It covers vocabulary for clinical care, translational and basic research, and public information and administrative activities.". https://ncit.nci.nih.gov/ncitbrowser... (accessed September 17, 2018).
  3. EPA DSStox. "Levofloxacin: DSSTox provides a high quality public chemistry resource for supporting improved predictive toxicology.". https://comptox.epa.gov/dashboard/ds... (accessed September 17, 2018).

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