Linomax Uses

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What is Linomax?

Linomax (Linomax) is an antibiotic that fights bacteria in the body. Linomax is also an MAO (monoamine oxidase) inhibitor.

Linomax is used to treat different types of bacterial infections, such as pneumonia, skin infections, and infections that are resistant to other antibiotics.

Linomax may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.

Linomax indications

infoAn indication is a term used for the list of condition or symptom or illness for which the medicine is prescribed or used by the patient. For example, acetaminophen or paracetamol is used for fever by the patient, or the doctor prescribes it for a headache or body pains. Now fever, headache and body pains are the indications of paracetamol. A patient should be aware of the indications of medications used for common conditions because they can be taken over the counter in the pharmacy meaning without prescription by the Physician.
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Linomax Tablets are indicated for the treatment of infections caused by susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms in the specific conditions listed below. Linomax Tablets are not indicated for the treatment of Gram-negative infections. It is critical that specific Gram-negative therapy be initiated immediately if a concomitant Gram-negative pathogen is documented or suspected.

Pneumonia

Nosocomial pneumonia caused by Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-susceptible and -resistant isolates) or Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Community-acquired pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, including cases with concurrent bacteremia, or Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-susceptible isolates only).

1.2 Skin and Skin Structure Infections

Complicated skin and skin structure infections, including diabetic foot infections, without concomitant osteomyelitis, caused by Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-susceptible and -resistant isolates), Streptococcus pyogenes, or Streptococcus agalactiae. Linomax Tablets have not been studied in the treatment of decubitus ulcers.

Uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-susceptible isolates only) or Streptococcus pyogenes.

Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium Infections

Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium infections, including cases with concurrent bacteremia.

1.4 Usage

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Linomax Tablets and other antibacterial drugs, Linomax Tablets should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

The safety and efficacy of Linomax Tablets given for longer than 28 days have not been evaluated in controlled clinical trials.

How should I use Linomax?

Use Linomax suspension as directed by your doctor. Check the label on the medicine for exact dosing instructions.

  • Take Linomax suspension by mouth with or without food. If stomach upset occurs, take with food to reduce stomach irritation.
  • Gently mix before each dose by turning the bottle upside-down 3 to 5 times. Do not shake Linomax suspension.
  • Use a measuring device marked for medicine dosing. Ask your pharmacist for help if you are unsure of how to measure your dose.
  • To clear up your infection completely, take Linomax suspension for the full course of treatment. Keep taking it even if you feel better in a few days.
  • If you miss a dose of Linomax suspension, take it as soon as possible. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not take 2 doses at once.

Ask your health care provider any questions you may have about how to use Linomax suspension.

Uses of Linomax in details

infoThere are specific as well as general uses of a drug or medicine. A medicine can be used to prevent a disease, treat a disease over a period or cure a disease. It can also be used to treat the particular symptom of the disease. The drug use depends on the form the patient takes it. It may be more useful in injection form or sometimes in tablet form. The drug can be used for a single troubling symptom or a life-threatening condition. While some medications can be stopped after few days, some drugs need to be continued for prolonged period to get the benefit from it.
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Linomax is used to treat bacterial infections such as pneumonia (community acquired pneumonia and nosocomial pneumonia), skin infections and infections that are resistant to other antibiotics.

Linomax description

Linomax I.V. Injection, Linomax Tablets, and Linomax for

Oral Suspension contain Linomax, which is a synthetic antibacterial agent of the oxazolidinone class.

Linomax Tablet for oral administration contains 600 mg Linomax as a film-coated compressed tablet. The sodium (Na+) content is 2.92 mg per 600-mg tablet (0.1 mEq/tablet).

Linomax for

Oral Suspension is supplied as an orange-flavored granule/powder for constitution into a suspension for oral administration. Following constitution, each 5 mL contains 100 mg of Linomax. The sodium (Na+) content is 8.52 mg/5 mL (0.4 mEq/5 mL).

Linomax I.V. Injection is supplied as a ready-to-use sterile isotonic solution for intravenous infusion. Each mL contains 2 mg of Linomax. The sodium (Na+) content is 0.38 mg/mL (5 mEq/300-mL bag; 3.3 mEq/200-mL bag; and 1.7 mEq/100-mL bag).

The chemical name for Linomax is (S)-N-[[3-[3-Fluoro-4-(4-morpholinyl)phenyl]-2-oxo-5-oxazolidinyl] methyl]-acetamide.

The empirical formula is C16H20FN3O4. Its molecular weight is 337.35.

Excipients/Inactive Ingredients: Film-Coated Tablet: Corn starch, microcrystalline cellulose, hydroxypropylcellulose, sodium starch glycolate, magnesium stearate, hypromellose, polyethylene glycol, titanium dioxide, and carnauba wax. Powd for

Oral Suspension:

Sucrose, citric acid, sodium citrate, microcrystalline cellulose and carboxymethylcellulose sodium, aspartame, xanthan gum, mannitol, sodium benzoate, colloidal silicon dioxide, sodium chloride, and flavors. Infusion: Sodium citrate, citric acid, and dextrose in an aqueous vehicle for intravenous administration.

Linomax dosage

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Patients whose therapy is started with Linomax injection may be switched to Linomax tablets or Linomax for oral suspension, with no dosage adjustment.

Duration of treatment is variable, depending on the pathogen isolated, site of infection and its severity. To date, the maximum duration of treatment has been 28 days.

Pre-term neonates <7 days of age (gestational age <34 weeks) have lower systemic Linomax clearance values and larger AUC values than many full-term neonates and older infants. By day 7 of age, Linomax clearance and AUC values are similar to those of full-term neonates and older infants.

Elderly patients: No dose adjustment is required.

Patients with Renal Insufficiency: No dose adjustment is required. Patients with severe renal insufficiency (ie, creatinine clearance <30 mL/min): No dose adjustment is required. Due to the unknown clinical significance of higher exposure (up to 10-fold) to the 2 primary metabolites of Linomax in patients with severe renal insufficiency, Linomax should be used with special caution in these patients and only when the anticipated benefit is considered to outweigh the theoretical risk.

As approximately 30% of a Linomax dose is removed during 3 hrs of hemodialysis, Linomax should be given after dialysis in patients receiving such treatment. The primary metabolites of Linomax are removed to some extent by hemodialysis, but the concentrations of these metabolites are still very considerably higher following dialysis than those observed in patients with normal renal function or mild to moderate renal insufficiency.

Therefore, Linomax should be used with special caution in patients with severe renal insufficiency who are undergoing dialysis and only when the anticipated benefit is considered to outweigh the theoretical risk.

To date, there is no experience of Linomax administration to patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) or alternative treatments for renal failure (other than haemodialysis).

Patients with Hepatic Insufficiency: No dose adjustment is required. However, there are limited clinical data and it is recommended that Linomax should be used in such patients only when anticipated benefit is considered to outweigh the theoretical risk.

Children: Recommended dosages for pediatric patients, see Table 2.

Linomax Injection: Administer Linomax injection by IV infusion over a period of 30-120 min. Do not use the IV infusion bag in series connections. Do not introduce additives into the IV solution. If Linomax injection is to be given concomitantly with another drug, each drug should be given separately, in accordance with the recommended dosage and route of administration for each product.

Linomax interactions

See also:
What other drugs will affect Linomax?

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Drugs Metabolized by Cytochrome P-450: Linomax is not detectably metabolised by the cytochrome P-450 (CYP) enzyme system and it does not induce or inhibit the activities of clinically significant human CYP isoforms (1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, 3A4). Therefore, no CYP450-induced drug interactions are expected with Linomax. Drugs eg, warfarin and phenytoin, which are CYP2C9 substrates, may be given with Linomax without changes in dosage regimen.

Antibiotics: The pharmacokinetics of Linomax were not altered when administered together with either aztreonam or gentamicin. The effect of rifampin on the pharmacokinetics of Linomax was studied in 16 healthy adult male volunteers administered Linomax 600 mg twice daily for 2.5 days with and without rifampin 600 mg once daily for 8 days. Rifampin decreased the Linomax Cmax and AUC by a mean 21% (90% CI, 15, 27) and a mean 32% (90% CI, 27, 37) respectively. The mechanism of this interaction and its clinical significance are unknown.

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibition: Linomax is a reversible, nonselective inhibitor of monoamine oxidase. Therefore, Linomax has the potential for interaction with adrenergic and serotonergic agents.

Adrenergic Agents: A significant pressor response has been observed in normal adult subjects receiving Linomax and tyramine doses of >100 mg. Therefore, patients receiving Linomax need to avoid consuming large amounts of foods or beverages with high tyramine content (eg, mature cheese, yeast extracts, undistilled alcoholic beverages and fermented soya bean products eg, soy sauce).

A reversible enhancement of the pressor response of either pseudoephedrine HCl (PSE) or phenylpropanolamine HCl (PPA) is observed when Linomax is administered to healthy normotensive subjects. A similar study has not been conducted in hypertensive patients. The interaction studies conducted in normotensive subjects evaluated the blood pressure and heart rate effects of placebo, PPA or PSE alone, Linomax alone, and the combination of steady-state Linomax (600 mg every 12 hrs for 3 days) with 2 doses of PPA (25 mg) or PSE (60 mg) given 4 hrs apart. Heart rate was not affected by any of the treatments.

Blood pressure was increased with both combination treatments. Maximum blood pressure levels were seen 2-3 hrs after the 2nd dose of PPA or PSE and returned to baseline 2-3 hrs after peak. The results of the PPA study follow, showing the mean (and range) maximum systolic blood pressure in mm Hg: Placebo=121 (103-158); Linomax alone=120 (107-135); PPA alone=125 (106-139); PPA with Linomax=147 (129-176). The results from the PSE study were similar to those in the PPA study. The mean maximum increase in systolic blood pressure over baseline was 32 mm Hg (range: 20-52 mm Hg) and 38 mm Hg (range: 18-79 mm Hg) during co-administration of Linomax with pseudoephedrine or phenylpropanolamine, respectively. Initial doses of adrenergic agents eg, dopamine or dopamine agonists, should be reduced and titrated to achieve the desired response.

Serotonergic Agents: The potential drug-drug interaction with dextromethorphan was studied in healthy volunteers. Subjects were administered dextromethorphan (two 20-mg doses given 4 hrs apart) with or without Linomax. No serotonin syndrome effects (confusion, delirium, restlessness, tremors, blushing, diaphoresis, hyperpyrexia) have been observed in normal subjects receiving Linomax and dextromethorphan. The effects of other serotonin re-uptake inhibitors have not been studied. However, very rare spontaneous reports of serotonin syndrome with co-administration of Linomax and serotonergic agents have been reported.

Incompatibilities: Injection: Additives should not be introduced into this solution. If Linomax is to be given concomitantly with other drugs, each drug should be given separately in accordance with its own directions for use. Similarly, if the same IV line is to be used for sequential infusion of several drugs, the line should be flushed prior to and following Linomax administration with a compatible infusion solution.

Linomax solution for infusion is known to be physically incompatible with the following compounds: Amphotericin B, chlorpromazine HCl, diazepam, pentamidine isothionate, erythromycin lactobionate, phenytoin sodium and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. Additionally, it is chemically incompatible with ceftriaxone sodium.

Compatible Infusion Solutions: 5% dextrose injection; 0.9% sodium chloride injection; lactated ringer's injection (Hartmann's solution for injection).

Linomax side effects

See also:
What are the possible side effects of Linomax?

Adult Patients: The safety of Linomax formulations was evaluated in 2046 adult patients enrolled in 7 phase III comparator-controlled clinical trials who were treated for up to 28 days. In these studies, 85% of the adverse events reported with Linomax were described as mild to moderate in intensity. Table 14 shows the incidence of adverse events reported in at least 2% of patients in these trials. The most common adverse events in patients treated with Linomax were diarrhea (incidence across studies: 2.8-11%), headache (incidence across studies: 0.5-11.3%) and nausea (incidence across studies: 3.4-9.6%).

Other adverse events reported in phase II and phase III studies included oral moniliasis, vaginal moniliasis, hypertension, dyspepsia, localized abdominal pain, pruritus and tongue discoloration.

Table 15 shows the incidence of drug-related adverse events reported in at least 1% of adult patients in these trials by dose of Linomax.

Pediatric Patients: The safety of Linomax formulations was evaluated in 215 pediatric patients ranging in age from birth through 11 years and in 248 pediatric patients 5-17 years (146 of these 248 were 5-11 years and 102 were 12-17 years). These patients were enrolled in 2 phase III comparator-controlled clinical trials and were treated for up to 28 days. In these studies, 83% and 99%, respectively, of the adverse events reported with Linomax were described as mild to moderate in intensity. In the study of hospitalized pediatric patients (birth through 11 years) with gram-positive infections who were randomized 2:1 (Linomax:vancomycin), mortality was 6% (13/215) in the Linomax arm and 3% (3/101) in the vancomycin arm. However, given the severe underlying illness in the patient population, no causality could be established. Table 16 shows the incidence of adverse events reported in at least 2% of pediatric patients treated with Linomax in these trials.

Table 17 shows the incidence of drug-related adverse events reported in >1% of pediatric patients (and >1 patient) in either treatment group in the comparator-controlled phase III trials.

Laboratory Changes: Linomax has been associated with thrombocytopenia when used in doses up to and including 600 mg every 12 hrs for up to 28 days. In phase III comparator-controlled trials, the percentage of adult patients who developed a substantially low platelet count (defined as <75% of lower limit of normal and/or baseline) was 2.4% (range among studies: 0.3-10%) with Linomax and 1.5% (range among studies: 0.4-7%) with a comparator. In a study of hospitalized pediatric patients ranging in age from birth through 11 years, the percentage of patients who developed a substantially low platelet count (defined as <75% of lower limit of normal and/or baseline) was 12.9% with Linomax and 13.4% with vancomycin. In an outpatient study of pediatric patients from 5-17 years, the percentage of patients who developed a substantially low platelet count was 0% with Linomax and 0.4% with cefadroxil. Thrombocytopenia associated with the use of Linomax appears to be dependent on duration of therapy (generally >2 weeks of treatment). The platelet counts for most patients returned to the normal range/baseline during the follow-up period. No related clinical adverse events were identified in phase III clinical trials in patients developing thrombocytopenia. Bleeding events were identified in thrombocytopenic patients in a compassionate use program for Linomax; the role of Linomax in these events cannot be determined.

Changes seen in other laboratory parameters, without regard to drug relationship, revealed no substantial differences between Linomax and the comparators. These changes were generally not clinically significant, did not lead to discontinuation of therapy and were reversible. The incidence of adults and pediatric patients with at least 1 substantially abnormal hematologic or serum chemistry value is presented in Tables 18, 19, 20 and 21.

Post-Marketing Experience: Myelosuppression (including anemia, leukopenia, pancytopenia, and thrombocytopenia) has been reported during post-marketing use of Linomax. Peripheral neuropathy and optic neuropathy sometimes progressing to loss of vision, have been reported in patients treated with Linomax. Lactic acidosis has been reported with the use of Linomax. Although these reports have primarily been in patients treated for longer than the maximum recommended duration of 28 days, these events have also been reported in patients receiving shorter courses of therapy. Serotonin syndrome has been reported in patients receiving concomitant serotonergic agents, including antidepressants eg, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and Linomax. Convulsions have been reported with the use of Linomax. Superficial tooth discoloration and tongue discoloration have been reported with the use of Linomax. The tooth discoloration was removable with professional dental cleaning (manual descaling) in case with known outcome. Anaphylaxis, angioedema and bullous skin disorders such as those described as Stevens-Johnson syndrome have been reported. These events have been chosen for inclusion due to either their seriousness, frequency of reporting, possible causal connection to Linomax or a combination of these factors. Because they are reported voluntarily from a population of unknown size, estimates of frequency cannot be made and causal relationship cannot be precisely established.

Linomax contraindications

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What is the most important information I should know about Linomax?

Do not use Linomax if you have used an MAO inhibitor such as furazolidone (Furoxone), isocarboxazid (Marplan), phenelzine (Nardil), rasagiline (Azilect), selegiline (Eldepryl, Emsam, Zelapar), or tranylcypromine (Parnate) in the last 14 days. A dangerous drug interaction could occur, leading to serious side effects.

Many drugs can interact with Linomax. Before using Linomax, tell your doctor about all other medications you use. You may need to stop using certain medicines before using Linomax (in some cases for up to 5 weeks before you start Linomax). During your treatment with Linomax, do not start or stop using any other medications unless your doctor tells you to.

You should not use Linomax if you have untreated or uncontrolled high blood pressure, a carcinoid tumor, adrenal gland tumor, or a severely overactive thyroid.

If you take an antidepressant or psychiatric medication, call your doctor right away if you have signs of a serious drug interaction, including: confusion, memory problems, feeling hyperactive (mentally or physically), loss of coordination, muscle twitching, shivering, sweating, diarrhea, and/or fever.

Eating tyramine while you are using Linomax can raise your blood pressure to dangerous levels. Avoid foods that have a high level of tyramine, such as aged cheeses or meats, pickled or fermented meats, smoked or air-dried meats, sauerkraut, soy sauce, tap beer, red wine, or any meat, cheese, or other protein-based food that has been improperly stored.



Active ingredient matches for Linomax:

Linezolid


Unit description / dosage (Manufacturer)Price, USD
LINOMAX 200MG INFUSION 1 bottle / 300 ML infusion each (Venus Remedies Ltd)$ 3.02

List of Linomax substitutes (brand and generic names):

LINOLET infusion 600 mg x 300 mL x 300ml (Ikon)$ 6.33
LINOPIK OD TABLET SR 1 strip / 5 tablet srs each (Auxiliare Healthcare Pvt Ltd)$ 6.27
200 mg x 100 mL x 300ml (AHPL)$ 6.19
600 mg x 4's (AHPL)$ 6.19
Linoplus 200mg x 100mL INF / 300ml (AHPL)$ 6.19
Linoplus 600mg FC-TAB / 4 (AHPL)$ 6.19
LINOPLUS 2MG INFUSION 1 bottle / 300 ML infusion each (AHPL)$ 6.19
LINOPLUS 600MG TABLET 1 strip / 10 tablets each (AHPL)$ 5.11
LINOPLUS infusion 200 mg x 100 mL x 300ml (AHPL)$ 6.19
LINOPLUS film-coated tab 600 mg x 4's (AHPL)$ 6.19
Linoplus 200mg x 100mL INF / 300ml (AHPL)$ 6.19
Linoplus 600mg FC-TAB / 4 (AHPL)$ 6.19
Linoplus 2mg Infusion (AHPL)$ 0.02
Linoplus 600mg Tablet (AHPL)$ 0.51
LINOSAF tab 600 mg x 10's (Avyukt)$ 13.02
Linosept 600mg TAB / 4 (Micro Eros)$ 4.89
Linosept 600mg INF / 300ml (Micro Eros)$ 4.10
600 mg x 300ml (Micro Eros)$ 4.10
600 mg x 4's (Micro Eros)$ 4.89
LINOSEPT 200MG INFUSION 1 bottle / 100 ML infusion each (Micro Eros)$ 1.79
LINOSEPT 600MG TABLET 1 strip / 4 tablets each (Micro Eros)$ 2.54
LINOSEPT infusion 600 mg x 300ml (Micro Eros)$ 4.10
LINOSEPT tab 600 mg x 4's (Micro Eros)$ 4.89
Linosept 200mg Infusion (Micro Eros)$ 0.02
Linosept 600mg Tablet (Micro Eros)$ 0.63
LINOSPAN Capsule/ Tablet / 200mg / 300ml units (Cipla)$ 5.95
LINOSPAN Infusion / 200mg / 100ml units (Cipla)$ 2.61
LINOSPAN Capsule/ Tablet / 600mg / 4 units (Cipla)$ 4.94
Linospan 600mg TAB / 4 (Cipla)$ 4.94
Linospan 200mg INJ / 100ml (Cipla)$ 2.38
Linospan 200mg INJ / 300ml (Cipla)$ 5.95
200 mg x 100 mL x 100ml (Cipla)$ 2.38
200 mg x 100 mL x 300ml (Cipla)$ 5.95
600 mg x 4's (Cipla)$ 4.94
100 mg x 10's (Cipla)$ 3.73
Linospan 100mg DT-TAB / 10 (Cipla)$ 3.73
LINOSPAN 100 MG TABLET DT 1 strip / 10 tablet dts each (Cipla)$ 4.51
LINOSPAN 200 MG INFUSION 1 bottle / 100 ML infusion each (Cipla)$ 2.87
LINOSPAN 600 MG INFUSION 1 bottle / 300 ML infusion each (Cipla)$ 6.54
LINOSPAN 600 MG TABLET 1 strip / 4 tablets each (Cipla)$ 2.48
LINOSPAN inj 200 mg x 100 mL x 100ml (Cipla)$ 2.61
LINOSPAN inj 200 mg x 100 mL x 300ml (Cipla)$ 5.95
LINOSPAN film-coated tab 600 mg x 4's (Cipla)$ 4.94
LINOSPAN dispertab 100 mg x 10's (Cipla)$ 3.73
Linospan 100mg Tablet DT (Cipla)$ 0.45
Linospan 200mg Infusion (Cipla)$ 0.03
Linospan 600mg Infusion (Cipla)$ 0.02
Linospan 600mg Tablet (Cipla)$ 0.53
LINOTIK tab 600 mg x 6's (Zenon)
LINOTRIK tab 600 mg x 6's (Aronex)
LINOWIN 2MG INJECTION 1 vial / 100 ML injection each (Hetero Drugs Ltd)$ 3.97
LINOWIN 2MG INJECTION 1 vial / 300 ML injection each (Hetero Drugs Ltd)$ 5.56
LINOWIN 600 MG TABLET 1 strip / 10 tablets each (Hetero Drugs Ltd)$ 4.76
Linowin 2mg Injection (Hetero Drugs Ltd)$ 0.02
Linowin 600mg Tablet (Hetero Drugs Ltd)$ 0.48
LINOX Infusion / 600mg / 300ml units (Unichem)$ 5.23

References

  1. DailyMed. "LINEZOLID: DailyMed provides trustworthy information about marketed drugs in the United States. DailyMed is the official provider of FDA label information (package inserts).". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailyme... (accessed September 17, 2018).
  2. PubChem. "linezolid". https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/com... (accessed September 17, 2018).
  3. DrugBank. "linezolid". http://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00601 (accessed September 17, 2018).

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