Magnesium chloride/Meglumine sodium succinate/potassium chloride/sodium chloride Actions

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Consists of magnesium chloride, Meglumine sodium succinate, potassium chloride, sodium chloride

Actions of Magnesium chloride in details

The action of the drug on the human body is called Pharmacodynamics in Medical terminology. To produce its effect and to change the pathological process that is happening the body and to reduce the symptom or cure the disease, the medicine has to function in a specific way. The changes it does to the body at cellular level gives the desired result of treating a disease. Drugs act by stimulating or inhibiting a receptor or an enzyme or a protein most of the times. Medications are produced in such a way that the ingredients target the specific site and bring about chemical changes in the body that can stop or reverse the chemical reaction which is causing the disease.
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Description: Magnesium is essential to many enzymatic reactions in the body, acting as a cofactor in protein synthesis and carbohydrate metabolism. 8.36 g of Magnesium chloride (hexahydrate) is equivalent to about 1 g of magnesium. Each g of magnesium chloride (hexahydrate) represents about 4.9 mmol of magnesium and 9.8 mmol of chloride.

Pharmacokinetics:

Absorption:

Oral: About one-third is absorbed from the small intestine. The fraction of magnesium absorbed is inversely proportional to amount ingested.

Distribution: Plasma protein binding: About 25-30%. Magnesium crosses the placenta.

Excretion:

Parenteral magnesium salts: Excreted mainly in urine.

Oral magnesium salts: Via urine (absorbed fraction); faeces (unabsorbed fraction).

How should I take Magnesium chloride?

Your doctor may check your kidney function before you start using magnesium chloride.

Magnesium chloride is given as an infusion into a vein. A healthcare provider will give you this injection.

You may be given other medications to help prevent serious side effects or allergic reaction.

Your breathing and blood pressure will be watched closely during and after each injection.

You may need frequent medical tests. Even if you have no symptoms, tests can help your doctor determine if this medicine is effective.

Magnesium chloride administration

Administration of drug is important to know because the drug absorption and action varies depending on the route and time of administration of the drug. A medicine is prescribed before meals or after meals or along with meals. The specific timing of the drug intake about food is to increase its absorption and thus its efficacy. Few work well when taken in empty stomach and few medications need to be taken 1 or 2 hrs after the meal. A drug can be in the form of a tablet, a capsule which is the oral route of administration and the same can be in IV form which is used in specific cases. Other forms of drug administration can be a suppository in anal route or an inhalation route.
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Oral: Bariatric surgery: Tablet, delayed release: Some institutions may have specific protocols that conflict with these recommendations; refer to institutional protocols as appropriate. ER tablets should be swallowed whole. Do not cut, chew, or crush. IR tablet and injectable formulations are available.

If safety and efficacy can be effectively monitored, no change in formulation or administration is required after bariatric surgery; however, clinicians should be aware that bariatric vitamin supplementation is recommended lifelong and may include magnesium. Consider integrating part or all of magnesium supplementation requirements into the postsurgery bariatric vitamin regimen.

Magnesium chloride pharmacology

Pharmacokinetics of a drug can be defined as what body does to the drug after it is taken. The therapeutic result of the medicine depends upon the Pharmacokinetics of the drug. It deals with the time taken for the drug to be absorbed, metabolized, the process and chemical reactions involved in metabolism and about the excretion of the drug. All these factors are essential to deciding on the efficacy of the drug. Based on these pharmacokinetic principles, the ingredients, the Pharmaceutical company decides dose and route of administration. The concentration of the drug at the site of action which is proportional to therapeutic result inside the body depends on various pharmacokinetic reactions that occur in the body.

Magnesium is important as a cofactor in many enzymatic reactions in the body involving protein synthesis and carbohydrate metabolism (at least 300 enzymatic reactions require magnesium). Actions on lipoprotein lipase have been found to be important in reducing serum cholesterol and on sodium/potassium ATPase in promoting polarization (eg, neuromuscular functioning).

Absorption

Oral: Inversely proportional to amount ingested; 40% to 60% under controlled dietary conditions; 15% to 36% at higher doses

Distribution

Bone (50% to 60%); extracellular fluid (1% to 2%)

Excretion

Urine (as magnesium)

Protein Binding

30%, to albumin

Actions of Potassium chloride in details

The action of the drug on the human body is called Pharmacodynamics in Medical terminology. To produce its effect and to change the pathological process that is happening the body and to reduce the symptom or cure the disease, the medicine has to function in a specific way. The changes it does to the body at cellular level gives the desired result of treating a disease. Drugs act by stimulating or inhibiting a receptor or an enzyme or a protein most of the times. Medications are produced in such a way that the ingredients target the specific site and bring about chemical changes in the body that can stop or reverse the chemical reaction which is causing the disease.
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Description: Potassium chloride is a major cation of the intracellular fluid. It plays an active role in the conduction of nerve impulses in the heart, brain and skeletal muscle; contraction of cardiac skeletal and smooth muscles; maintenance of normal renal function, acid-base balance, carbohydrate metabolism and gastric secretion.

Pharmacokinetics:

Absorption: Well absorbed from the upper GI tract.

Distribution: Active transport mechanism allows K chloride to enter cells from the extracellular fluid.

Excretion: Mainly via the urine with small amounts via the sweat and faeces.

How should I take Potassium chloride?

Take Potassium chloride exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Do not take in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended. Follow the directions on your prescription label.

Take Potassium chloride with food or just after a meal with a full glass of water or other liquid.

Do not crush, chew, or suck on an Potassium chloride tablet. Swallow the tablet whole. Sucking on a potassium tablet can irritate your mouth or throat.

If you are having difficulty swallowing whole tablets, you may try one of the following:

Your treatment may include a special diet. It is very important to follow the diet plan created for you by your doctor or nutrition counselor. You should become very familiar with the list of foods you should eat or avoid to help control your condition.

Potassium-rich foods include: squash, baked potatoes (skin on), spinach, lentils, broccoli, brussels sprouts, zucchini, kidney or navy beans, raisins, watermelon, orange juice, bananas, cantaloupe, and low-fat milk or yogurt. Consume only the daily amounts recommended by your doctor or nutrition counselor.

To be sure Potassium chloride is helping your condition, your blood may need to be tested often. Your heart rate may also be checked using an electrocardiograph or ECG (sometimes called an EKG) to measure electrical activity of the heart. This test will help your doctor determine how long to treat you with potassium. Do not miss any scheduled appointments.

Do not stop taking Potassium chloride without first talking to your doctor. If you stop taking potassium suddenly, your condition may become worse.

Store Potassium chloride at room temperature away from moisture and heat. Keep the medication in a closed container.

Potassium chloride administration

Administration of drug is important to know because the drug absorption and action varies depending on the route and time of administration of the drug. A medicine is prescribed before meals or after meals or along with meals. The specific timing of the drug intake about food is to increase its absorption and thus its efficacy. Few work well when taken in empty stomach and few medications need to be taken 1 or 2 hrs after the meal. A drug can be in the form of a tablet, a capsule which is the oral route of administration and the same can be in IV form which is used in specific cases. Other forms of drug administration can be a suppository in anal route or an inhalation route.
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Potassium: Should be taken with food.

Potassium chloride: Should be taken with food.

Potassium chloride pharmacology

Pharmacokinetics of a drug can be defined as what body does to the drug after it is taken. The therapeutic result of the medicine depends upon the Pharmacokinetics of the drug. It deals with the time taken for the drug to be absorbed, metabolized, the process and chemical reactions involved in metabolism and about the excretion of the drug. All these factors are essential to deciding on the efficacy of the drug. Based on these pharmacokinetic principles, the ingredients, the Pharmaceutical company decides dose and route of administration. The concentration of the drug at the site of action which is proportional to therapeutic result inside the body depends on various pharmacokinetic reactions that occur in the body.

The potassium ion is the principal intracellular cation of most body tissues. Potassium ions participate in a number of essential physiological processes, including the maintenance of intracellular tonicity, the transmission of nerve impulses, the contraction of cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscle, and the maintenance of normal renal function.

The intracellular concentration of potassium is approximately 150 to 160 mEq/L. The normal adult plasma concentration is 3.5-5.0 mEq/L. An active ion transport system maintains this gradient across the plasma membrane.

Potassium is a normal dietary constituent; under steady-state conditions, the amount of potassium absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract is equal to the amount excreted in the urine. The usual dietary intake of potassium is 50 to 100 mEq per day.

Potassium depletion may occur whenever the rate of potassium loss through renal excretion and/or loss from the gastrointestinal tract exceeds the rate of potassium intake. Such depletion usually develops slowly as a consequence of prolonged therapy with oral diuretics, primary or secondary hyperaldosteronism, diabetic ketoacidosis, severe diarrhea, or inadequate replacement of potassium in patients on prolonged parenteral nutrition. Depletion can develop rapidly with severe diarrhea, especially if associated with vomiting. Potassium depletion due to these causes is usually accompanied by a concomitant loss of chloride and is manifested by hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis. Potassium depletion may produce weakness, fatigue, disturbances of cardiac rhythm (primarily ectopic beats), prominent U waves in the electrocardiogram, and, in advanced cases, flaccid paralysis and/or impaired ability to concentrate urine.

If potassium depletion associated with metabolic alkalosis cannot be managed by correcting the fundamental cause of the deficiency, e.g., where the patient requires long-term diuretic therapy, supplemental potassium in the form of high-potassium food or potassium chloride may be able to restore normal potassium levels.

In rare circumstances (e.g., patients with renal tubular acidosis) potassium depletion may be associated with metabolic acidosis and hyperchloremia. In such patients potassium replacement should be accomplished with potassium salts other than the chloride, such as potassium bicarbonate, potassium citrate, potassium acetate, or potassium gluconate.

The potassium chloride in Potassium chloride (potassium chloride) is completely absorbed before it leaves the small intestine. The wax matrix is not absorbed and is excreted in the feces; in some instances the empty matrices may be noticeable in the stool. When the bioavailability of the potassium ion from Potassium chloride (potassium chloride) is compared to that of a true solution the extent of absorption is similar.

The extended-release properties of Potassium chloride (potassium chloride) are demonstrated by the finding that a significant increase in time is required for renal excretion of the first 50% of the Potassium chloride (potassium chloride) dose as compared to the solution.

Increased urinary potassium excretion is first observed 1 hour after administration of Potassium chloride (potassium chloride), reaches a peak at 4 hours, and extends up to 8 hours. Mean daily steady-state plasma levels of potassium following daily administration of Potassium chloride (potassium chloride) cannot be distinguished from those following administration of a potassium chloride solution or from control plasma levels of potassium ion.

Actions of Sodium chloride in details

The action of the drug on the human body is called Pharmacodynamics in Medical terminology. To produce its effect and to change the pathological process that is happening the body and to reduce the symptom or cure the disease, the medicine has to function in a specific way. The changes it does to the body at cellular level gives the desired result of treating a disease. Drugs act by stimulating or inhibiting a receptor or an enzyme or a protein most of the times. Medications are produced in such a way that the ingredients target the specific site and bring about chemical changes in the body that can stop or reverse the chemical reaction which is causing the disease.

Pharmacology: Properties and Actions: sodium chloride is a nasal spray composed of saline solution that duplicates the physiological components of normal nasal secretions.

sodium chloride acts safely to wash and humidify the air passages in the nose. sodium chloride also helps maintain and restore normal moisture of nasal mucous membranes.

sodium chloride provides a convenient and practical method of washing and clearing nasal passages of dusts, dirt, crusted mucus, pollens, pollutants, allergens and other irritants.

sodium chloride loosens thick nasal mucus secretions to facilitate removal from the nose and sinuses. It also restores vital moisture to provide relief for dry, crusted, irritated and inflamed nasal membranes due to colds, allergies, low humidity, use of steroid nasal spray, overuse of topical nasal decongestants and other nasal solutions, chronic sinusitis, or rebound sinus reaction from smog.

sodium chloride also helps relieve nasal irritation, congestion and pressure that accompany common cold, allergy, sinusitis and other disorders affecting the nasal passages. sodium chloride has no side effects and can be safely used along with other medicines.

sodium chloride is not significantly metabolized in the body. The effects are localized to the nasal passages.

sodium chloride is drug-free and contains no irritating chemical components. It has no drug interactions and can be used concomitantly with any cold, allergy and sinus medications.

How should I take Sodium chloride?

Administration of drug is important to know because the drug absorption and action varies depending on the route and time of administration of the drug. A medicine is prescribed before meals or after meals or along with meals. The specific timing of the drug intake about food is to increase its absorption and thus its efficacy. Few work well when taken in empty stomach and few medications need to be taken 1 or 2 hrs after the meal. A drug can be in the form of a tablet, a capsule which is the oral route of administration and the same can be in IV form which is used in specific cases. Other forms of drug administration can be a suppository in anal route or an inhalation route.

Take sodium chloride exactly as directed by your doctor. Do not take more of it, do not take it more often, and do not take it for a longer time than your doctor ordered.

Follow the instructions on the medicine label if you are using sodium chloride without a prescription.

Tell your doctor if you are on a low-salt or sodium diet.

To prepare sodium chloride isotonic solution:

Dosing

The dose of sodium chloride will be different for different patients. Follow your doctor's orders or the directions on the label. The following information includes only the average doses of sodium chloride. If your dose is different, do not change it unless your doctor tells you to do so.

The amount of medicine that you take depends on the strength of the medicine. Also, the number of doses you take each day, the time allowed between doses, and the length of time you take the medicine depend on the medical problem for which you are using the medicine.

Storage

Store the medicine in a closed container at room temperature, away from heat, moisture, and direct light. Keep from freezing.

Keep out of the reach of children.

Do not keep outdated medicine or medicine no longer needed.

Ask your healthcare professional how you should dispose of any medicine you do not use.

Sodium chloride pharmacology

Pharmacokinetics of a drug can be defined as what body does to the drug after it is taken. The therapeutic result of the medicine depends upon the Pharmacokinetics of the drug. It deals with the time taken for the drug to be absorbed, metabolized, the process and chemical reactions involved in metabolism and about the excretion of the drug. All these factors are essential to deciding on the efficacy of the drug. Based on these pharmacokinetic principles, the ingredients, the Pharmaceutical company decides dose and route of administration. The concentration of the drug at the site of action which is proportional to therapeutic result inside the body depends on various pharmacokinetic reactions that occur in the body.

Sodium chloride in water dissociates to provide sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl−) ions. These ions are normal constituents of the body fluids (principally extracellular) and are essential for maintaining electrolyte balance.

The distribution and excretion of sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl−) are largely under the control of the kidney which maintains a balance between intake and output.

The small volume of fluid and amount of sodium chloride provided by Bacteriostatic 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP, when used only as a vehicle for parenteral injection of drugs, is unlikely to exert a significant effect on fluid and electrolyte balance except possibly in neonates and very small infants.

Water is an essential constituent of all body tissues and accounts for approximately 70% of total body weight. Average normal adult daily requirement ranges from two to three liters (1.0 to 1.5 liters each for insensible water loss by perspiration and urine production).

Water balance is maintained by various regulatory mechanisms. Water distribution depends primarily on the concentration of electrolytes in the body compartments and sodium (Na+) plays a major role in maintaining physiologic equilibrium.



References

  1. DailyMed. "AMINO ACIDS; CALCIUM ACETATE; GLYCERIN; MAGNESIUM ACETATE; PHOSPHORIC ACID; POTASSIUM CHLORIDE; SODIUM ACETATE; SODIUM CHLORIDE: DailyMed provides trustworthy information about marketed drugs in the United States. DailyMed is the official provider of FDA label information (package inserts).". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailyme... (accessed September 17, 2018).
  2. DailyMed. "MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE: DailyMed provides trustworthy information about marketed drugs in the United States. DailyMed is the official provider of FDA label information (package inserts).". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailyme... (accessed September 17, 2018).
  3. NCIt. "Potassium Chloride: NCI Thesaurus (NCIt) provides reference terminology for many systems. It covers vocabulary for clinical care, translational and basic research, and public information and administrative activities.". https://ncit.nci.nih.gov/ncitbrowser... (accessed September 17, 2018).

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Information checked by Dr. Sachin Kumar, MD Pharmacology

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