Moxifloxacin Actions

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Actions of Moxifloxacin in details

infoThe action of the drug on the human body is called Pharmacodynamics in Medical terminology. To produce its effect and to change the pathological process that is happening the body and to reduce the symptom or cure the disease, the medicine has to function in a specific way. The changes it does to the body at cellular level gives the desired result of treating a disease. Drugs act by stimulating or inhibiting a receptor or an enzyme or a protein most of the times. Medications are produced in such a way that the ingredients target the specific site and bring about chemical changes in the body that can stop or reverse the chemical reaction which is causing the disease.
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Microbiology: Moxifloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibacterial with a broad spectrum of activity and bactericidal action. Moxifloxacin has in vitro activity against a wide range of gram-positive and gram-negative organisms, anaerobes, acid-fast bacteria and atypicals, eg Mycoplasma, Chlamydia and Legionella spp.

Moxifloxacin is effective against β-lactam- and macrolide-resistant bacteria. Studies in animal models of infection have demonstrated the high in vitro activity.

Moxifloxacin has been shown to be active against most strains of the following microorganisms, both in vitro and in clinical infections.

Gram-Positive Microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-sensitive strains); Streptococcus pneumoniae (including penicillin- and macrolide-resistant strains); Streptococcus pyogenes (group A).

Gram-Negative Microorganisms: Haemophilus influenzae (including β-lactamase-negative and -positive strains); Haemophilus parainfluenzae; Klebsiella pneumoniae; Moraxella catarrhalis (including β-lactamase-negative and -positive strains; Escherichia coli; Enterobacter cloacae.

Atypicals: Chlamydia pneumoniae; Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

According to in vitro studies, the following organisms are sensitive to moxifloxacin, however, the safety and effectiveness of moxifloxacin in treating clinical infections due to these microorganisms have not been established in adequate and well-controlled clinical trials.

Gram-Positive Microorganisms: Streptococcus milleri, Streptococcus mitior, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Staphylococcus cohnii, Staphylococcus epidermidis (including methicillin-sensitive strains), Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus simulans, Corynebacterium diphtheriae.

Gram-Negative Microorganisms: Bordetella pertussis, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter agglomerens, Enterobacter intermedius, Enterobacter sakazaki, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Morganella morganii, Providencia rettgeri, Providencia stuartii.

Anaerobes: Bacteroides distasonis, Bacteroides eggerthii, Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides ovatus, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides uniformis, Fusobacterium and Porphyromonas spp, Porphyromonas anaerobius, Porphyromonas asaccharolyticus, Porphyromonas magnus, Prevotella and Propionibacterium spp, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium ramosum.

Atypicals: Legionella pneumophila, Caxiella burnetii.

The bactericidal action results from the interference with topoisomerase II and IV. Topoisomerases are essential enzymes which control DNA topology and assist in DNA replication, repair and transcription.

Moxifloxacin exhibits concentration-dependent bactericidal killing. Minimum bactericidal concentrations are generally similar to minimum inhibitory concentrations.

Resistance mechanisms which inactivate penicillins, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, macrolides and tetracyclines do not interfere with the antibacterial activity of moxifloxacin. There is no cross-resistance between moxifloxacin and these agents. Plasmid-mediated resistance has not been observed to date. A very low overall frequency of resistance was demonstrated (10-7 to 10-10). In vitro studies have demonstrated that resistance to moxifloxacin develops slowly by multiple-step mutations.

Serial exposure of organisms to sub-MIC concentrations of moxifloxacin showed only a small increase in MIC values. Cross-resistance among quinolones has been observed. However, some gram-positive and anaerobic organisms resistant to other quinolones are susceptible to moxifloxacin.

How should I take Moxifloxacin?

Your doctor will tell you how much of moxifloxacin to use and how often. Do not use more medicine or use it more often than your doctor tells you to. moxifloxacin is not for long-term use.

To use the eye drops:

  • First, wash your hands. Tilt the head back and pressing your finger gently on the skin just beneath the lower eyelid, pull the lower eyelid away from the eye to form a pouch. Drop the medicine into the pouch and gently close the eyes. Do not blink. Keep the eyes closed for 1 or 2 minutes to allow the medicine to come into contact with the infection.
  • If you think you did not get the drop of medicine into your eye properly, repeat the directions with another drop.
  • Immediately after using the eye drops, wash your hands to remove any medicine that may be on them.
  • To keep the medicine as germ free as possible, do not touch the applicator tip to any surface (including the eye). Also, keep the container tightly closed.

To help clear up your eye infection completely, keep using moxifloxacin for the full time of treatment, even if your symptoms have disappeared and even if you feel better after the first few doses. Your infection may not clear up if you stop using the medicine too soon. Do not miss any doses.

Dosing

The dose of moxifloxacin will be different for different patients. Follow your doctor's orders or the directions on the label. The following information includes only the average doses of moxifloxacin. If your dose is different, do not change it unless your doctor tells you to do so.

The amount of medicine that you take depends on the strength of the medicine. Also, the number of doses you take each day, the time allowed between doses, and the length of time you take the medicine depend on the medical problem for which you are using the medicine.

  • For ophthalmic dosage form (eye drops):
    • For bacterial conjunctivitis:
      • Adults, teenagers, and children 4 months of age and older—Put one drop in the affected eye(s) two times a day for 7 days.
      • Infants younger than 4 months of age—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.

Missed Dose

If you miss a dose of moxifloxacin, apply it as soon as possible. However, if it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule.

Storage

Store the medicine in a closed container at room temperature, away from heat, moisture, and direct light. Keep from freezing.

Keep out of the reach of children.

Do not keep outdated medicine or medicine no longer needed.

Ask your healthcare professional how you should dispose of any medicine you do not use.

Moxifloxacin administration

infoAdministration of drug is important to know because the drug absorption and action varies depending on the route and time of administration of the drug. A medicine is prescribed before meals or after meals or along with meals. The specific timing of the drug intake about food is to increase its absorption and thus its efficacy. Few work well when taken in empty stomach and few medications need to be taken 1 or 2 hrs after the meal. A drug can be in the form of a tablet, a capsule which is the oral route of administration and the same can be in IV form which is used in specific cases. Other forms of drug administration can be a suppository in anal route or an inhalation route.
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May be taken with or without food.

Moxifloxacin pharmacology

infoPharmacokinetics of a drug can be defined as what body does to the drug after it is taken. The therapeutic result of the medicine depends upon the Pharmacokinetics of the drug. It deals with the time taken for the drug to be absorbed, metabolized, the process and chemical reactions involved in metabolism and about the excretion of the drug. All these factors are essential to deciding on the efficacy of the drug. Based on these pharmacokinetic principles, the ingredients, the Pharmaceutical company decides dose and route of administration. The concentration of the drug at the site of action which is proportional to therapeutic result inside the body depends on various pharmacokinetic reactions that occur in the body.

Mechanism of Action

Moxifloxacin hydrochloride tablets are a member of the fluoroquinolone class of antibacterial agents.

Pharmacodynamics

Photosensitivity Potential

A study of the skin response to ultraviolet (UVA and UVB) and visible radiation conducted in 32 healthy volunteers (8 per group) demonstrated that moxifloxacin hydrochloride does not show phototoxicity in comparison to placebo. The minimum erythematous dose (MED) was measured before and after treatment with moxifloxacin hydrochloride (200 mg or 400 mg once daily), lomefloxacin (400 mg once daily), or placebo. In this study, the MED measured for both doses of moxifloxacin hydrochloride were not significantly different from placebo, while lomefloxacin significantly lowered the MED.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption

Moxifloxacin, given as an oral tablet, is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. The absolute bioavailability of moxifloxacin is approximately 90 percent. Co-administration with a high fat meal (that is, 500 calories from fat) does not affect the absorption of moxifloxacin.

Consumption of 1 cup of yogurt with moxifloxacin does not affect the rate or extent of the systemic absorption (that is, area under the plasma concentration time curve (AUC).

Plasma concentrations increase proportionately with dose up to the highest dose tested (1200 mg single oral dose). The mean (± SD) elimination half-life from plasma is 12 ± 1.3 hours; steady-state is achieved after at least three days with a 400 mg once daily regimen.

Mean Steady-State Plasma Concentrations of Moxifloxacin Obtained With Once Daily Dosing of 400 mg Either

Orally (n=10) or by

Intravenous Infusion (n=12)

Distribution

Moxifloxacin is approximately 30–50% bound to serum proteins, independent of drug concentration. The volume of distribution of moxifloxacin ranges from 1.7 to 2.7 L/kg. Moxifloxacin is widely distributed throughout the body, with tissue concentrations often exceeding plasma concentrations. Moxifloxacin has been detected in the saliva, nasal and bronchial secretions, mucosa of the sinuses, skin blister fluid, subcutaneous tissue, skeletal muscle, and abdominal tissues and fluids following oral or intravenous administration of 400 mg. Moxifloxacin concentrations measured post-dose in various tissues and fluids following a 400 mg oral or intravenous dose are summarized in Table 7. The rates of elimination of moxifloxacin from tissues generally parallel the elimination from plasma.

Metabolism

Approximately 52% of an oral or intravenous dose of moxifloxacin is metabolized via glucuronide and sulfate conjugation. The cytochrome P450 system is not involved in moxifloxacin metabolism, and is not affected by moxifloxacin. The sulfate conjugate (M1) accounts for approximately 38% of the dose, and is eliminated primarily in the feces. Approximately 14% of an oral or intravenous dose is converted to a glucuronide conjugate (M2), which is excreted exclusively in the urine. Peak plasma concentrations of M2 are approximately 40% those of the parent drug, while plasma concentrations of M1 are generally less than 10% those of moxifloxacin.

In vitro studies with cytochrome (CYP) P450 enzymes indicate that moxifloxacin does not inhibit CYP3A4, CYP2D6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, or CYP1A2.

Excretion

Approximately 45% of an oral or intravenous dose of moxifloxacin is excreted as unchanged drug (~20% in urine and ~25% in feces). A total of 96% ± 4% of an oral dose is excreted as either unchanged drug or known metabolites. The mean (± SD) apparent total body clearance and renal clearance are 12 ± 2 L/hr and 2.6 ± 0.5 L/hr, respectively.

Pharmacokinetics in Specific Populations

Geriatric

Following oral administration of 400 mg moxifloxacin for 10 days in 16 elderly (8 male; 8 female) and 17 young (8 male; 9 female) healthy volunteers, there were no age-related changes in moxifloxacin pharmacokinetics. In 16 healthy male volunteers (8 young; 8 elderly) given a single 200 mg dose of oral moxifloxacin, the extent of systemic exposure (AUC and C max) was not statistically different between young and elderly males and elimination half-life was unchanged. No dosage adjustment is necessary based on age. In large phase III studies, the concentrations around the time of the end of the infusion in elderly patients following intravenous infusion of 400 mg were similar to those observed in young patients.

Pediatric

The pharmacokinetics of moxifloxacin in pediatric subjects has not been studied.

Gender

Following oral administration of 400 mg moxifloxacin daily for 10 days to 23 healthy males (19–75 years) and 24 healthy females (19–70 years), the mean AUC and C max were 8% and 16% higher, respectively, in females compared to males. There are no significant differences in moxifloxacin pharmacokinetics between male and female subjects when differences in body weight are taken into consideration.

A 400 mg single dose study was conducted in 18 young males and females. The comparison of moxifloxacin pharmacokinetics in this study (9 young females and 9 young males) showed no differences in AUC or C max due to gender. Dosage adjustments based on gender are not necessary.

Race

Steady-state moxifloxacin pharmacokinetics in male Japanese subjects were similar to those determined in Caucasians, with a mean C max of 4.1 mcg/mL, an AUC 24 of 47 mcg∙h/mL, and an elimination half-life of 14 hours, following 400 mg p.o. daily.

Renal Insufficiency

The pharmacokinetic parameters of moxifloxacin are not significantly altered in mild, moderate, severe, or end-stage renal disease. No dosage adjustment is necessary in patients with renal impairment, including those patients requiring hemodialysis (HD) or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD).

In a single oral dose study of 24 patients with varying degrees of renal function from normal to severely impaired, the mean peak concentrations (C max) of moxifloxacin were reduced by 21% and 28% in the patients with moderate (CL CR≥ 30 and ≤ 60 mL/min) and severe (CL CR<30 mL/min) renal impairment, respectively. The mean systemic exposure (AUC) in these patients was increased by 13%. In the moderate and severe renally impaired patients, the mean AUC for the sulfate conjugate (M1) increased by 1.7-fold (ranging up to 2.8-fold) and mean AUC and C max for the glucuronide conjugate (M2) increased by 2.8-fold (ranging up to 4.8-fold) and 1.4-fold (ranging up to 2.5-fold), respectively.

The pharmacokinetics of single dose and multiple dose moxifloxacin were studied in patients with CL CR<20 mL/min on either hemodialysis or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (8 HD, 8 CAPD). Following a single 400 mg oral dose, the AUC of moxifloxacin in these HD and CAPD patients did not vary significantly from the AUC generally found in healthy volunteers. C max values of moxifloxacin were reduced by about 45% and 33% in HD and CAPD patients, respectively, compared to healthy, historical controls. The exposure (AUC) to the sulfate conjugate (M1) increased by 1.4- to 1.5-fold in these patients. The mean AUC of the glucuronide conjugate (M2) increased by a factor of 7.5, whereas the mean C max values of the glucuronide conjugate (M2) increased by a factor of 2.5 to 3, compared to healthy subjects. The sulfate and the glucuronide conjugates of moxifloxacin are not microbiologically active, and the clinical implication of increased exposure to these metabolites in patients with renal disease including those undergoing HD and CAPD has not been studied.

Oral administration of 400 mg QD moxifloxacin hydrochloride for 7 days to patients on HD or CAPD produced mean systemic exposure (AUC ss) to moxifloxacin similar to that generally seen in healthy volunteers. Steady- state C max values were about 22% lower in HD patients but were comparable between CAPD patients and healthy volunteers. Both HD and CAPD removed only small amounts of moxifloxacin from the body (approximately 9% by HD, and 3% by CAPD). HD and CAPD also removed about 4% and 2% of the glucuronide metabolite (M2), respectively.

Hepatic Insufficiency

No dosage adjustment is recommended for mild, moderate, or severe hepatic insufficiency (Child-Pugh Classes A, B, or C). However, due to metabolic disturbances associated with hepatic insufficiency, which may lead to QT prolongation, moxifloxacin hydrochloride tablets should be used with caution in these patients.

In 400 mg single oral dose studies in 6 patients with mild (Child-Pugh Class A) and 10 patients with moderate (Child-Pugh Class B) hepatic insufficiency, moxifloxacin mean systemic exposure (AUC) was 78% and 102%, respectively, of 18 healthy controls and mean peak concentration (C max) was 79% and 84% of controls.

The mean AUC of the sulfate conjugate of moxifloxacin (M1) increased by 3.9-fold (ranging up to 5.9- fold) and 5.7-fold (ranging up to 8-fold) in the mild and moderate groups, respectively. The mean C max of M1 increased by approximately 3-fold in both groups (ranging up to 4.7- and 3.9-fold). The mean AUC of the glucuronide conjugate of moxifloxacin (M2) increased by 1.5-fold (ranging up to 2.5-fold) in both groups. The mean C max of M2 increased by 1.6- and 1.3-fold (ranging up to 2.7- and 2.1-fold), respectively. The clinical significance of increased exposure to the sulfate and glucuronide conjugates has not been studied. In a subset of patients participating in a clinical trial, the plasma concentrations of moxifloxacin and metabolites determined approximately at the moxifloxacin T max following the first intravenous or oral moxifloxacin hydrochloride dose in the Child-Pugh Class C patients (n=10) were similar to those in the Child-Pugh Class A/B patients (n=5), and also similar to those observed in healthy volunteer studies.

Drug-Drug Interactions

The following drug interactions were studied in healthy volunteers or patients.

Antacids and iron significantly reduced bioavailability of moxifloxacin, as observed with other fluoroquinolones.

Calcium, digoxin, itraconazole, morphine, probenecid, ranitidine, theophylline, cyclosporine and warfarin did not significantly affect the pharmacokinetics of moxifloxacin. These results and the data from in vitro studies suggest that moxifloxacin is unlikely to significantly alter the metabolic clearance of drugs metabolized by CYP3A4, CYP2D6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, or CYP1A2 enzymes.

Moxifloxacin had no clinically significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of atenolol, digoxin, glyburide, itraconazole, oral contraceptives, theophylline, cyclosporine and warfarin. However, fluoroquinolones, including moxifloxacin hydrochloride, have been reported to enhance the anticoagulant effects of warfarin or its derivatives in the patient population.

Antacids

When moxifloxacin (single 400 mg tablet dose) was administered two hours before, concomitantly, or 4 hours after an aluminum/magnesium-containing antacid (900 mg aluminum hydroxide and 600 mg magnesium hydroxide as a single oral dose) to 12 healthy volunteers there was a 26%, 60% and 23% reduction in the mean AUC of moxifloxacin, respectively. Moxifloxacin should be taken at least 4 hours before or 8 hours after antacids containing magnesium or aluminum, as well as sucralfate, metal cations such as iron, and multivitamin preparations with zinc, or didanosine buffered tablets for oral suspension or the pediatric powder for oral solution.

Atenolol

In a crossover study involving 24 healthy volunteers (12 male; 12 female), the mean atenolol AUC following a single oral dose of 50 mg atenolol with placebo was similar to that observed when atenolol was given concomitantly with a single 400 mg oral dose of moxifloxacin. The mean C max of single dose atenolol decreased by about 10% following co-administration with a single dose of moxifloxacin.

Calcium

Twelve healthy volunteers were administered concomitant moxifloxacin (single 400 mg dose) and calcium (single dose of 500 mg Ca ++ dietary supplement) followed by an additional two doses of calcium 12 and 24 hours after moxifloxacin administration. Calcium had no significant effect on the mean AUC of moxifloxacin. The mean C max was slightly reduced and the time to maximum plasma concentration was prolonged when moxifloxacin was given with calcium compared to when moxifloxacin was given alone (2.5 hours versus 0.9 hours). These differences are not considered to be clinically significant.

Digoxin

No significant effect of moxifloxacin (400 mg once daily for two days) on digoxin (0.6 mg as a single dose) AUC was detected in a study involving 12 healthy volunteers. The mean digoxin C max increased by about 50% during the distribution phase of digoxin. This transient increase in digoxin C max is not viewed to be clinically significant. Moxifloxacin pharmacokinetics were similar in the presence or absence of digoxin. No dosage adjustment for moxifloxacin or digoxin is required when these drugs are administered concomitantly.

Glyburide

In diabetics, glyburide (2.5 mg once daily for two weeks pretreatment and for five days concurrently) mean AUC and C max were 12% and 21% lower, respectively, when taken with moxifloxacin (400 mg once daily for five days) in comparison to placebo. Nonetheless, blood glucose levels were decreased slightly in patients taking glyburide and moxifloxacin in comparison to those taking glyburide alone, suggesting no interference by moxifloxacin on the activity of glyburide. These interaction results are not viewed as clinically significant.

Iron

When Moxifloxacin were administered concomitantly with iron (ferrous sulfate 100 mg once daily for two days), the mean AUC and C max of moxifloxacin was reduced by 39% and 59%, respectively. Moxifloxacin should only be taken more than 4 hours before or 8 hours after iron products.

Itraconazole

In a study involving 11 healthy volunteers, there was no significant effect of itraconazole (200 mg once daily for 9 days), a potent inhibitor of cytochrome P4503A4, on the pharmacokinetics of moxifloxacin (a single 400 mg dose given on the 7 th day of itraconazole dosing). In addition, moxifloxacin was shown not to affect the pharmacokinetics of itraconazole.

Morphine

No significant effect of morphine sulfate (a single 10 mg intramuscular dose) on the mean AUC and C max of moxifloxacin (400 mg single dose) was observed in a study of 20 healthy male and female volunteers.

Oral Contraceptives

A placebo-controlled study in 29 healthy female subjects showed that moxifloxacin 400 mg daily for 7 days did not interfere with the hormonal suppression of oral contraception with 0.15 mg levonorgestrel/0.03 mg ethinylestradiol (as measured by serum progesterone, FSH, estradiol, and LH), or with the pharmacokinetics of the administered contraceptive agents.

Probenecid

Probenecid (500 mg twice daily for two days) did not alter the renal clearance and total amount of moxifloxacin (400 mg single dose) excreted renally in a study of 12 healthy volunteers.

Ranitidine

No significant effect of ranitidine (150 mg twice daily for three days as pretreatment) on the pharmacokinetics of moxifloxacin (400 mg single dose) was detected in a study involving 10 healthy volunteers.

Theophylline

No significant effect of moxifloxacin (200 mg every twelve hours for 3 days) on the pharmacokinetics of theophylline (400 mg every twelve hours for 3 days) was detected in a study involving 12 healthy volunteers. In addition, theophylline was not shown to affect the pharmacokinetics of moxifloxacin. The effect of co-administration of 400 mg once daily of moxifloxacin with theophylline has not been studied.

Warfarin

No significant effect of moxifloxacin (400 mg once daily for eight days) on the pharmacokinetics of R- and S-warfarin (25 mg single dose of warfarin sodium on the fifth day) was detected in a study involving 24 healthy volunteers. No significant change in prothrombin time was observed. However, fluoroquinolones, including moxifloxacin hydrochloride, have been reported to enhance the anticoagulant effects of warfarin or its derivatives in the patient population.

Microbiology

Mechanism of Action

The bactericidal action of moxifloxacin results from inhibition of the topoisomerase II (DNA gyrase) and topoisomerase IV required for bacterial DNA replication, transcription, repair, and recombination.

Mechanism of Resistance

The mechanism of action for fluoroquinolones, including moxifloxacin, is different from that of macrolides, beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, or tetracyclines; therefore, microorganisms resistant to these classes of drugs may be susceptible to moxifloxacin. Resistance to fluoroquinolones occurs primarily by a mutation in topoisomerase II (DNA gyrase) or topoisomerase IV genes, decreased outer membrane permeability or drug efflux. In vitro resistance to moxifloxacin develops slowly via multiple- step mutations. Resistance to moxifloxacin occurs in vitro at a general frequency of between 1.8 × 10 –9 to < 1 × 10 –11 for Gram-positive bacteria.

Cross Resistance

Cross-resistance has been observed between moxifloxacin and other fluoroquinolones against Gram- negative bacteria. Gram-positive bacteria resistant to other fluoroquinolones may, however, still be susceptible to moxifloxacin. There is no known cross-resistance between moxifloxacin and other classes of antimicrobials.

Moxifloxacin has been shown to be active against most isolates of the following bacteria, both in vitro and in clinical infections.

Gram-positive bacteria

Enterococcus faecalis

Staphylococcus aureus

Streptococcus anginosus

Streptococcus constellatus

Streptococcus pneumoniae (including multi-drug resistant isolates [MDRSP] )

Streptococcus pyogenes

MDRSP, Multi-drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae includes isolates previously known as PRSP (Penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae), and are isolates resistant to two or more of the following antibiotics: penicillin (MIC) ≥2 mcg/mL), 2nd generation cephalosporins (for example, cefuroxime), macrolides, tetracyclines, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole.

Gram-negative bacteria

Enterobacter cloacae

Escherichia coli

Haemophilus influenzae

Haemophilus parainfluenzae

Klebsiella pneumoniae

Moraxella catarrhalis

Proteus mirabilis

Yersinia pestis

Anaerobic bacteria

Bacteroides fragili

Bacteroides thetaiotaomicro

Clostridium perfringens

Peptostreptococcus species

Other microorganisms

Chlamydophila pneumoniae

Mycoplasma pneumoniae

The following in vitro data are available, but their clinical significance is unknown. At least 90 percent of the following bacteria exhibit an in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) less than or equal to the susceptible breakpoint for moxifloxacin. However, the efficacy of moxifloxacin hydrochloride in treating clinical infections due to these bacteria has not been established in adequate and well controlled clinical trials.

Gram-positive bacteria

Staphylococcus epidermidis

Streptococcus agalactiae

Streptococcus viridans group

Gram-negative bacteria

Citrobacter freundii

Klebsiella oxytoca

Legionella pneumophila

Anaerobic bacteria

Fusobacterium species

Prevotella species

Susceptibility Tests Methods

When available, the clinical microbiology laboratory should provide the results of in vitro susceptibility test results for antimicrobial drug products used in resident hospitals to the physician as periodic reports that describe the susceptibility profile of nosocomial and community acquired pathogens. These reports should aid the physician in selecting an antibacterial drug product for treatment.

Dilution Techniques

Quantitative methods are used to determine antimicrobial minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). These MICs provide estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. The MICs should be determined using a standardized procedure. Standardized procedures are based on a dilution method (broth and/or agar). 1,2,4 The MIC values should be interpreted according to the criteria in Table 8.

Diffusion Techniques

Quantitative methods that require measurement of zone diameters can also provide reproducible estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. The zone size provides an estimate of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. The zone size prove should be determined using a standardized test method. 2,3 This procedure uses paper disks impregnated with 5 mcg moxifloxacin to test the susceptibility of bacteria to moxifloxacin. The disc diffusion interpretive criteria are provided in Table 8.

Anaerobic Techniques

For anaerobic bacteria, the susceptibility to moxifloxacin can be determined by a standardized test method. 2,5 The MIC values obtained should be interpreted according to the criteria provided in Table 8.

A report of "Susceptible" indicates that the antimicrobial is likely to inhibit growth of the pathogen if the antimicrobial compound reaches the concentrations at the infection site necessary to inhibit growth of the pathogen. A report of "Intermediate" indicates that the result should be considered equivocal, and, if the microorganism is not fully susceptible to alternative, clinically feasible drugs, the test should be repeated. This category implies possible clinical applicability in body sites where the drug is physiologically concentrated or in situations where a high dosage of the drug product can be used. This category also provides a buffer zone that prevents small uncontrolled technical factors from causing major discrepancies in interpretation. A report of "Resistant" indicates that the antimicrobial is not likely to inhibit growth of the pathogen if the antimicrobial compound reaches the concentrations usually achievable at the infection site; other therapy should be selected.

Quality Control

Standardized susceptibility test procedures require the use of laboratory controls to monitor and ensure the accuracy and precision of supplies and reagents used in the assay and the techniques of the individuals performing the test. 1,2,3,4,5 Standard moxifloxacin powder should provide the following range of MIC values noted in Table 9. For the diffusion technique using the 5 mcg moxifloxacin disk, the criteria in Table 9 should be achieved.


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References

  1. EPA DSStox. "Moxifloxacin: DSSTox provides a high quality public chemistry resource for supporting improved predictive toxicology.". https://comptox.epa.gov/dashboard/dsstox... (accessed September 18, 2017).
  2. NCIt. "Moxifloxacin: NCI Thesaurus (NCIt) provides reference terminology for many systems. It covers vocabulary for clinical care, translational and basic research, and public information and administrative activities.". https://ncit.nci.nih.gov/ncitbrowser/Con... (accessed September 18, 2017).

Reviews

The results of a survey conducted on ndrugs.com for Moxifloxacin are given in detail below. The results of the survey conducted are based on the impressions and views of the website users and consumers taking Moxifloxacin. We implore you to kindly base your medical condition or therapeutic choices on the result or test conducted by a physician or licensed medical practitioners.

User reports

1 consumer reported administration

When best can I take Moxifloxacin, on an empty stomach, before or after food?
ndrugs.com website users have also released a report stating that Moxifloxacin should be taken With a meal. In any case, this may not be the right description on how you ought to take this Moxifloxacin. Kindly visit your doctor for more medical advice in this regard. Click here to see other users view on when best the Moxifloxacin can be taken.
Users%
With a meal1
100.0%


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