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What is Paclitaxin-100?
Paclitaxin-100 injection is used to treat advanced cancer of the ovaries, breast, non-small cell lung cancer, and Kaposi sarcoma. Kaposi sarcoma is a cancer of the skin and mucous membranes that is commonly found in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Paclitaxin-100 belongs to the group of medicines called antineoplastics. It interferes with the growth of cancer cells, which are eventually destroyed. Since the growth of normal body cells may also be affected, other unwanted effects will also occur. Some of these may be serious and must be reported to your doctor. Other effects may not be serious but may cause concern. Some effects may not occur until months or years after the medicine is used.
Before you begin treatment with Paclitaxin-100, you and your doctor should talk about the good Paclitaxin-100 will do as well as the risks of using it.
Paclitaxin-100 is to be administered only by or under the immediate supervision of your doctor.
Once a medicine has been approved for marketing for a certain use, experience may show that it is also useful for other medical problems. Although these uses are not included in product labeling, Paclitaxin-100 is used in certain patients with the following medical conditions:
- Cancer of the bladder.
- Cancer of the cervix.
- Cancer of the endometrium.
- Cancer of the esophagus.
- Cancer of the fallopian tube or lining of the abdomen (spreading from the ovary).
- Cancers of the head and neck.
- Cancer of the prostate.
- Cancer of the stomach
- Cancer of the testes.
- Cancer of unknown primary site.
- Small cell lung cancer (a certain type found in the tissues of the lungs).
As 1st-line and subsequent therapy for the treatment of advanced carcinoma of the ovary. As 1st-line therapy, Paclitaxin-100 is indicated in combination with cisplatin. In noncomparative trials, continuous infusion of Paclitaxin-100 110-300 mg/m2 over 3-96 hrs every 3-4 weeks produced complete or partial response in 16-48% of patients with ovarian cancer and 25-61.5% of patients with metastatic breast cancer, many of whom were refractory to treatment with cisplatin or doxorubicin. About 23-100% of patients with ovarian cancer achieved complete or partial response with Paclitaxin-100 in combination with cisplatin, carboplatin, cyclophosphamide, altretamine and/or doxorubicin. Similarly, response rates of 30-100% were observed with Paclitaxin-100 plus doxorubicin, cisplatin, mitoxantrone and/or cyclophosphamide in patients with metastatic breast cancer. In several comparative trials, treatment with Paclitaxin-100 in patients with advanced ovarian cancer produced greater response rates than hydroxyurea (71% vs 0%) or cyclophosphamide (when both agents were combined with cisplatin; 79% vs 63%).
Adjuvant treatment of node-positive breast cancer administered sequentially to standard doxorubicin-containing combination chemotherapy. In the clinical trial of Paclitaxin-100, there was an overall favourable effect on disease-free and overall survival in the total population of patients with receptor-positive and -negative tumors, but the benefit has been specifically demonstrated only in patients with estrogen and progesterone receptor-negative tumours.
Treatment of breast cancer after failure of combination chemotherapy for metastatic disease or relapse within 6 months of adjuvant chemotherapy. Prior therapy should have included an anthracycline unless clinically contraindicated.
Paclitaxin-100 therapy in combination with cisplatin is indicated for the 1st-line treatment of advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer in patients who are not candidates for potentially curative surgery and/or radiation therapy.
Paclitaxin-100 is also indicated as a 2nd-line treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma.
Paclitaxin-100 is also found to be effective in patients with head and neck cancer, germ cell cancer, urothelial cancer, oesophageal cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
How should I use Paclitaxin-100?
Use Paclitaxin-100 as directed by your doctor. Check the label on the medicine for exact dosing instructions.
- An extra patient leaflet is available with Paclitaxin-100. Talk to your pharmacist if you have questions about this information.
- Paclitaxin-100 is usually given as an injection at your doctor's office, hospital, or clinic. Contact your health care provider if you have any questions.
- If nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or loss of appetite occurs, do not discontinue your medicine. Ask your doctor or pharmacist for ways to lessen these effects.
- You should receive certain other medicines, such as corticosteroids (eg, prednisone), diphenhydramine, and H blocker (eg, famotidine), before each treatment with Paclitaxin-100 to decrease the chance of an allergic reaction. Discuss any questions with your doctor.
- Wear gloves while handling Paclitaxin-100.
- If you get Paclitaxin-100 on your skin, rinse the area thoroughly with soap and water. If you get Paclitaxin-100 in your eyes, nose, or mouth, flush the area thoroughly with water.
- If you miss a dose of Paclitaxin-100, contact your doctor right away.
Ask your health care provider any questions you may have about how to use Paclitaxin-100.
Uses of Paclitaxin-100 in details
This medication is used to treat certain cancers (including breast, lung, and pancreatic cancer). Paclitaxin-100 belongs to a class of drugs known as chemotherapy drugs. It works by slowing or stopping the growth of cancer cells.
How to use Paclitaxin-100 intravenous
Read the Patient Information Leaflet available from your pharmacist before you start using Paclitaxin-100. If you have any questions, consult your doctor or pharmacist.
This medication is given by injection into a vein by a health care professional. It is given on a schedule as directed by your doctor. Dosage is based on your medical condition, body size, laboratory tests, and response to treatment.
Paclitaxin-100 Injection Concentrate is a sterile solution containing 6 mg/mL Paclitaxin-100, 2 mg/mL Anhydrous Citric Acid BP, 527 mg/mL PEG 35 Castor Oil and Ethanol BP.
Paclitaxin-100 is extremely hydrophobic, and is therefore formulated in PEG 35 castor oil and ethanol.
Paclitaxin-100 is an anticancer agent from the taxane class of drugs. It is a white powder with a molecular weight (MW) of 853.9. The CAS number for Paclitaxin-100 is 33069-62-4.
Paclitaxin-100 Injection Concentrate must be diluted prior to intravenous infusion.
Paclitaxin-100 is described chemically as (2 S,5 R,7 S,10 R,13 S)-10,20-bis(acetoxy)-2-benzoyloxy-1,7- dihydroxy-9-oxo-5,20- epoxytax-11-en-13-yl (3 S)-3-benzoylamino-3-phenyl-D-lactate.
Paclitaxin-100 Injection Concentrate has a pH of 6 to 7.
All patients should be premedicated prior to Paclitaxin-100 administration in order to minimize severe hypersensitivity reaction. Such premedication may consist of dexamethasone 20 mg orally approximately 12 and 6 hrs before Paclitaxin-100, dipenhydramine (or its equivalent) 50 mg IV 30-60 min prior to Paclitaxin-100, and cimetidine 300 mg or ranitidine 50 mg IV 30-60 min before Paclitaxin-100.
Ovarian Carcinoma: Paclitaxin-100 administered IV over 3 hrs at a dose of 175 mg/m2 followed by cisplatin at a dose of 75 mg/m2, every 3 weeks. Paclitaxin-100 should be administered before cisplatin.
Paclitaxin-100 at a dose of 175 mg/m2 administered IV over 3 hrs every 3 weeks has been shown to be effective in patients with metastatic carcinoma of the ovary who have failed standard therapy.
Breast Carcinoma: Paclitaxin-100 at a dose of 175 mg/m2 administered IV over 3 hrs every 3 weeks has been shown to be effective in patients with metastatic carcinoma of the breast who have failed standard therapy.
For the adjuvant treatment of node-positive breast cancer, the recommended regimen is Paclitaxin-100, at a dose of 175 mg/m2 IV over 3 hrs every 3 weeks for 4 courses administered sequentially to doxorubicin-containing combination chemotherapy.
When used in combination with trastuzumab, the recommended dose of Paclitaxin-100 is 175 mg/m2 administered IV over a period of 3 hrs with a 3-week interval between courses. Paclitaxin-100 may be started the day following the 1st dose of trastuzumab or immediately after the subsequent doses of trastuzumab if the preceding dose of trastuzumab was well tolerated.
Lung Carcinoma: Paclitaxin-100 administered IV over 3 hrs at a dose of 175 mg/m2 followed by cisplatin at a dose of 80 mg/m2, every 3 weeks.
Gastric Carcinoma: Paclitaxin-100 administered IV over 3 hrs at a dose of 175-210 mg/m2, and then it should be taken a rest at least 3 weeks. Determination of dosage should be considered by the age and symptoms. Single courses of Paclitaxin-100 should not be repeated until the neutrophil count is at least 1500 cell/mm3 and the platelet count is at least 100,000 cells/mm3. Patients who experience severe neutropenia (neutrophile <500 cells/mm3, for 7 days) or severe peripheral neuropathy during Paclitaxin-100 therapy should have the dosage reduced by 20% for subsequent courses of Paclitaxin-100.
Administration: Paclitaxin-100 for injection must be diluted prior to infusion. Paclitaxin-100 should be diluted in 0.9% sodium chloride injection, 5% dextrose injection, 5% dextrose and 0.9% sodium chloride injection, or 5% dextrose in ringer's injection to a final concentration of 0.3-1.2 mg/mL. The solutions are physically and chemically stable for up to 27 hrs at ambient temperature (15-30°C). Upon preparation, solutions may show haziness, which is attributed to the formulation vehicle. No significant loss in potency has been noted following simulated delivery of the solution through IV tubing containing an in-line (0.22 micron) filter.
Interactions with Other Medicines: Cisplatin: Administration of cisplatin prior to Paclitaxin-100 treatment leads to greater myelosuppression than that seen when Paclitaxin-100 is given prior to cisplatin. In patients receiving cisplatin prior to Paclitaxin-100, there is about a 33% decrease in Paclitaxin-100 clearance.
Ketoconazole: As ketoconazole may inhibit the metabolism of Paclitaxin-100, patients receiving Paclitaxin-100 and ketoconazole should be closely monitored or the combination of these drugs should be avoided.
Doxorubicin: Sequence effects characterised by more profound neutropenic and stomatitis episodes have been observed with combination use of Paclitaxin-100 and doxorubicin when Paclitaxin-100 was administered before doxorubicin and using longer than recommended infusion times (Paclitaxin-100 administered over 24 hours; doxorubicin over 48 hours). Plasma levels of doxorubicin (and its active metabolite doxorubicinol) may be increased when Paclitaxin-100 and doxorubicin are used in combination. However, data from a trial using bolus doxorubicin and 3 hour Paclitaxin-100 infusion found no sequence effects on the pattern of toxicity.
Drugs Metabolised in the Liver: Caution should be exercised during concurrent administration of drugs which are metabolised in the liver (e.g. erythromycin) as such drugs may inhibit the metabolism of Paclitaxin-100. The metabolism of Paclitaxin-100 is catalysed by cytochrome P450 isoenzymes CYP2C8 and CYP3A4. In the absence of formal clinical drug interaction studies caution should be exercised when administering Paclitaxin-100 Injection Concentrate concomitantly with known substrates or inhibitors of these isoenzymes. In the clinical trial of Paclitaxin-100 in combination with trastuzumab (Herceptin), mean serum trough concentrations of trastuzumab were consistently elevated 1.5 fold as compared with serum concentrations of trastuzumab in combination with anthracycline plus cyclophosphamide (AC). Arthralgia or myalgia adverse events of Paclitaxin-100 appear to be of a higher incidence in patients being treated concurrently with filgrastim (granulocyte colony stimulating factor; G-CSF).
Paclitaxin-100 side effects
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
The most common adverse reactions ( ≥ 20%) with single-agent use of Paclitaxin-100 in metastatic breast cancer are alopecia, neutropenia, sensory neuropathy, abnormal ECG, fatigue/asthenia, myalgia/arthralgia, AST elevation, alkaline phosphatase elevation, anemia, nausea, infections, and diarrhea.
The most common adverse reactions ( ≥ 20%) of Paclitaxin-100 in combination with carboplatin for non-small cell lung cancer are anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, alopecia, peripheral neuropathy, nausea, and fatigue. The most common serious adverse reactions of Paclitaxin-100 in combination with carboplatin for non-small cell lung cancer are anemia (4%) and pneumonia (3%). The most common adverse reactions resulting in permanent discontinuation of Paclitaxin-100 are neutropenia (3%), thrombocytopenia (3%), and peripheral neuropathy (1%). The most common adverse reactions resulting in dose reduction of Paclitaxin-100 are neutropenia (24%), thrombocytopenia (13%), and anemia (6%). The most common adverse reactions leading to withholding or delay in Paclitaxin-100 dosing are neutropenia (41%), thrombocytopenia (30%), and anemia (16%).
In a randomized open-label trial of Paclitaxin-100 in combination with gemcitabine for pancreatic adenocarcinoma, the most common ( ≥ 20%) selected (with a ≥ 5% higher incidence) adverse reactions of Paclitaxin-100 are neutropenia, fatigue, peripheral neuropathy, nausea, alopecia, peripheral edema, diarrhea, pyrexia, vomiting, decreased appetite, rash, and dehydration. The most common serious adverse reactions of Paclitaxin-100 (with a ≥ 1% higher incidence) are pyrexia (6%), dehydration (5%), pneumonia (4%) and vomiting (4%). The most common adverse reactions resulting in permanent discontinuation of Paclitaxin-100 are peripheral neuropathy (8%), fatigue (4%) and thrombocytopenia (2%). The most common adverse reactions resulting in dose reduction of Paclitaxin-100 are neutropenia (10%) and peripheral neuropathy (6%). The most common adverse reactions leading to withholding or delay in Paclitaxin-100 dosing are neutropenia (16%), thrombocytopenia (12%), fatigue (8%), peripheral neuropathy (15%), anemia (5%) and diarrhea (5%).
Clinical Trials Experience In Metastatic Breast Cancer
Table 6 shows the frequency of important adverse events in the randomized comparative trial for the patients who received either single-agent Paclitaxin-100 or Paclitaxin-100 injection for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer.
Table 6: Frequencya of Important Treatment Emergent Adverse Events in the Randomized Metastatic Breast Cancer Study on an Every-3-Weeks Schedule
|Percent of Patients|
|ABRAXANE260 mg/m² over 30 min |
|Paclitaxin-100 Injection175 mg/m² over 3 h Urinary tract infections includes the preferred terms of: urinary tract infection, cystitis, urosepsis, urinary tract infection bacterial, and urinary tract infection enterococcal.|
Additional clinically relevant adverse reactions that were reported in < 10% of the patients with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas who received Paclitaxin-100/gemcitabine included:
Infections & infestations: oral candidiasis, pneumonia
Vascular disorders: hypertension
Cardiac disorders: tachycardia, congestive cardiac failure
Eye disorders: cystoid macular edema
Grade 3 peripheral neuropathy occurred in 17% of patients who received Paclitaxin-100/gemcitabine compared to 1% of patients who received gemcitabine only; no patients developed grade 4 peripheral neuropathy. The median time to first occurrence of Grade 3 peripheral neuropathy in the Paclitaxin-100 arm was 140 days. Upon suspension of Paclitaxin-100 dosing, the median time to improvement from Grade 3 peripheral neuropathy to ≤ Grade 1 was 29 days. Of Paclitaxin-100-treated patients with Grade 3 peripheral neuropathy, 44% resumed Paclitaxin-100 at a reduced dose.
Sepsis occurred in 5% of patients who received Paclitaxin-100/gemcitabine compared to 2% of patients who received gemcitabine alone. Sepsis occurred both in patients with and without neutropenia. Risk factors for sepsis included biliary obstruction or presence of biliary stent.
Pneumonitis occurred in 4% of patients who received Paclitaxin-100/gemcitabine compared to 1% of patients who received gemcitabine alone. Two of 17 patients in the Paclitaxin-100 arm with pneumonitis died.
Postmarketing Experience With Paclitaxin-100 And Other Paclitaxin-100 Formulations
Unless otherwise noted, the following discussion refers to the adverse reactions that have been identified during post-approval use of Paclitaxin-100. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. In some instances, severe events observed with Paclitaxin-100 injection may be expected to occur with Paclitaxin-100.
Severe and sometimes fatal hypersensitivity reactions have been reported with Paclitaxin-100. The use of Paclitaxin-100 in patients previously exhibiting hypersensitivity to Paclitaxin-100 injection or human albumin has not been studied.
There have been reports of congestive heart failure, left ventricular dysfunction, and atrioventricular block with Paclitaxin-100. Most of the individuals were previously exposed to cardiotoxic drugs, such as anthracyclines, or had underlying cardiac history.
There have been reports of pneumonitis, interstitial pneumonia and pulmonary embolism in patients receiving Paclitaxin-100 and reports of radiation pneumonitis in patients receiving concurrent radiotherapy. Reports of lung fibrosis have been received as part of the continuing surveillance of Paclitaxin-100 injection safety and may also be observed with Paclitaxin-100.
Cranial nerve palsies and vocal cord paresis have been reported, as well as autonomic neuropathy resulting in paralytic ileus.
Reports in the literature of abnormal visual evoked potentials in patients treated with Paclitaxin-100 injection suggest persistent optic nerve damage. These may also be observed with Paclitaxin-100.
Reduced visual acuity due to cystoid macular edema (CME) has been reported during treatment with Paclitaxin-100 as well as with other taxanes. After cessation of treatment, CME improves and visual acuity may return to baseline.
Reports of hepatic necrosis and hepatic encephalopathy leading to death have been received as part of the continuing surveillance of Paclitaxin-100 injection safety and may occur following Paclitaxin-100 treatment.
There have been reports of intestinal obstruction, intestinal perforation, pancreatitis, and ischemic colitis following Paclitaxin-100 treatment. There have been reports of neutropenic enterocolitis (typhlitis), despite the coadministration of G-CSF, occurring in patients treated with Paclitaxin-100 injection alone and in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents.
Injection Site Reaction
There have been reports of extravasation of Paclitaxin-100. Given the possibility of extravasation, it is advisable to monitor closely the Paclitaxin-100 infusion site for possible infiltration during drug administration.
Severe events such as phlebitis, cellulitis, induration, necrosis, and fibrosis have been reported as part of the continuing surveillance of Paclitaxin-100 injection safety. In some cases the onset of the injection site reaction in Paclitaxin-100 injection patients either occurred during a prolonged infusion or was delayed by a week to ten days. Recurrence of skin reactions at a site of previous extravasation following administration of Paclitaxin-100 injection at a different site, i.e., “recall”, has been reported.
Other Clinical Events
Skin reactions including generalized or maculopapular rash, erythema, and pruritus have been observed with Paclitaxin-100. There have been case reports of photosensitivity reactions, radiation recall phenomenon, and in some patients previously exposed to capecitabine, reports of palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia. Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis have been reported.
There have been reports of conjunctivitis, cellulitis, and increased lacrimation with Paclitaxin-100 injection.
No reports of accidental exposure to Paclitaxin-100 have been received. However, upon inhalation of Paclitaxin-100, dyspnea, chest pain, burning eyes, sore throat, and nausea have been reported. Following topical exposure, events have included tingling, burning, and redness.
Do not use Paclitaxin-100 if you are pregnant. It could harm the unborn baby.
You should not receive this medication if you are allergic to Paclitaxin-100, or to other medications that contain an ingredient called Cremophor EL (polyoxyethylated castor oil). This includes cyclosporine (Gengraf, Neoral, Sandimmune) and teniposide (Vumon).
Before you receive Paclitaxin-100, tell your doctor if you have HIV, AIDS, Kaposi's sarcoma, heart disease, high blood pressure, or liver disease.
There are many other medicines that can interact with Paclitaxin-100. Tell your doctor about all other chemotherapy treatments you are receiving, and about all medications you use. This includes prescription, over-the-counter, vitamin, and herbal products. Do not start a new medication without telling your doctor. Keep a list of all your medicines and show it to any healthcare provider who treats you.
Paclitaxin-100 can lower blood cells that help your body fight infections and help your blood to clot. Your blood may need to be tested often. Avoid being near people who are sick or have infections. Avoid activities that may increase your risk of bleeding injury. Tell your doctor at once if you develop signs of infection.
Call your doctor if you have a serious side effect such as fever, flu symptoms, mouth sores, pale skin, easy bruising or bleeding, chest pain, trouble breathing, numbness or tingling, jaundice (yellowing of the skin or eyes), severe headache, buzzing in your ears, confusion, slow or uneven heartbeats, seizure (convulsions), or severe irritation where the medicine was injected.
Active ingredient matches for Paclitaxin-100:
Paclitaxel in Luxembourg.
List of Paclitaxin-100 substitutes (brand and generic names)
|Sort by popularity|
|Unit description / dosage (Manufacturer)||Price, USD|
|Paclitaxin Concentrate (Singapore)|
|Paclitaxin Concentrate 6 mg/1 mL x 1's|
|Paclitec 30mg x 5mL VIAL / 1 (United Biotech)|
|Paclitec 100mg x 20mL VIAL / 1 (United Biotech)|
|Paclitec 260mg x 43.4mL VIAL / 1 (United Biotech)|
|30 mg x 5 mL x 1's (United Biotech)|
|100 mg x 20 mL x 1's (United Biotech)|
|260 mg x 43.4 mL x 1's (United Biotech)|
|PACLITEC 100MG INJECTION 1 vial / 20 ML injection each (United Biotech)||$ 66.14|
|PACLITEC inj 30 mg x 5 mL x 5ml (United Biotech)||$ 25.10|
|PACLITEC inj 100 mg x 20 mL x 20ml (United Biotech)||$ 66.35|
|PACLITEC inj 260 mg x 43.4 mL x 43.4ml (United Biotech)||$ 155.40|
|Paclitec 100mg Injection (United Biotech)||$ 3.31|
|Injectable; Injection; Paclitaxel 6 mg / ml|
|Pacliteva (Argentina, Bulgaria)|
|PACLITOL 100MG INJECTION 1 vial / 1 ML injection each (Pharmanel)||$ 21.58|
|PACLITOL 260MG INJECTION 1 vial / 1 ML injection each (Pharmanel)||$ 158.71|
|PACLITOL 30MG INJECTION 1 vial / 5 ML injection each (Pharmanel)||$ 33.33|
|Paclitol 100mg Injection (Pharmanel)||$ 21.58|
|Paclitol 260mg Injection (Pharmanel)||$ 158.71|
|Paclitol 30mg Injection (Pharmanel)||$ 6.67|
|30 mg x 1's (Panacea)||$ 23.81|
|100 mg x 1's (Panacea)||$ 60.32|
|300 mg x 1's (Panacea)||$ 142.86|
|Paclitrust 30mg VIAL / 1 (Panacea)||$ 23.81|
|Paclitrust 100mg VIAL / 1 (Panacea)||$ 60.32|
|Paclitrust 300mg VIAL / 1 (Panacea)||$ 142.86|
|PACLITRUST 100MG INJECTION 1 vial / 1 ML injection each (Panacea)||$ 54.71|
|PACLITRUST 260MG INJECTION 1 vial / 1 ML injection each (Panacea)||$ 129.58|
|PACLITRUST 30MG INJECTION 1 vial / 5 ML injection each (Panacea)||$ 21.60|
|PACLITRUST inj 30 mg x 1's (Panacea)||$ 23.81|
|PACLITRUST inj 100 mg x 1's (Panacea)||$ 60.32|
|PACLITRUST inj 300 mg x 1's (Panacea)||$ 142.86|
|Paclitrust 30mg VIAL / 1 (Panacea)||$ 23.81|
|Paclitrust 100mg VIAL / 1 (Panacea)||$ 60.32|
|Paclitrust 300mg VIAL / 1 (Panacea)||$ 142.86|
|Paclitrust 100mg Injection (Panacea)||$ 54.71|
|Paclitrust 260mg Injection (Panacea)||$ 129.58|
- DailyMed. "PACLITAXEL: DailyMed provides trustworthy information about marketed drugs in the United States. DailyMed is the official provider of FDA label information (package inserts).". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailyme... (accessed September 17, 2018).
- PubChem. "paclitaxel". https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/com... (accessed September 17, 2018).
- DrugBank. "paclitaxel". http://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB01229 (accessed September 17, 2018).
ReviewsThe results of a survey conducted on ndrugs.com for Paclitaxin-100 are given in detail below. The results of the survey conducted are based on the impressions and views of the website users and consumers taking Paclitaxin-100. We implore you to kindly base your medical condition or therapeutic choices on the result or test conducted by a physician or licensed medical practitioners.
Consumer reported usefulNo survey data has been collected yet
Consumer reported price estimatesNo survey data has been collected yet
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Information checked by Dr. Sachin Kumar, MD Pharmacology