How do you administer this medicine?
What is Phenylephrine?
Phenylephrine ophthalmic causes constriction of blood vessels in the eyes. It also enlarges the pupils, reduces the production of fluid in the eyes, and increases the amount of fluid that drains from the eyes.
Phenylephrine ophthalmic available over-the-counter is used to relieve redness, burning, irritation, and dryness of the eye caused by wind, sun, and other minor irritants. Prescription-strength Phenylephrine ophthalmic is used to constrict blood vessels in the eye and to dilate (make bigger) the pupil for conditions such as glaucoma, before surgery, and before eye examinations.
Phenylephrine ophthalmic may also be used for purposes other than those listed in this medication guide.
Phenylephrine is used for the temporary relief of stuffy nose, sinus, and ear symptoms caused by the common cold, flu, allergies, or other breathing illnesses (e.g., sinusitis, bronchitis). This medication works by decreasing swelling in the nose and ears, thereby lessening discomfort and making it easier to breathe.
Cough-and-cold products have not been shown to be safe or effective in children younger than 6 years. Therefore, do not use this product to treat cold symptoms in children younger than 6 years unless specifically directed by the doctor. Some products (such as long-acting tablets/capsules) are not recommended for use in children younger than 12 years. Ask your doctor or pharmacist for more details about using your product safely.
How should I use Phenylephrine?
Use Phenylephrine drops as directed by your doctor. Check the label on the medicine for exact dosing instructions.
- Phenylephrine drops is for use in the eye only. Avoid contact with the nose or mouth.
- To use Phenylephrine drops, first, wash your hands. Tilt your head back. Using your index finger, pull the lower eyelid away from the eye to form a pouch. Drop the medicine into the pouch and gently close your eyes. Immediately use your finger to apply pressure to the inside corner of the eye for 1 to 2 minutes. Do not blink. Remove excess medicine around your eye with a clean tissue, being careful not to touch your eye. Wash your hands to remove any medicine that may be on them.
- To prevent germs from contaminating your medicine, do not touch the applicator tip to any surface, including your eye. Keep the container tightly closed.
- Do not wear contact lenses while you are using Phenylephrine drops. Sterilize contact lenses according to the manufacturer's directions and check with your doctor before using them.
- Do not use Phenylephrine drops if it is brown or contains particles.
- If you miss a dose of Phenylephrine drops, use it as soon as possible. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not use 2 doses at once.
Ask your health care provider any questions you may have about how to use Phenylephrine drops.
Uses of Phenylephrine in details
Use: Labeled Indications
Hypotension/shock: Treatment of hypotension, vascular failure in shock. Note: Not recommended for routine use in the treatment of septic shock; use should be limited until more evidence demonstrating positive clinical outcomes becomes available (Rhodes 2017).
Cardiogenic shock: The 2017 American Heart Association (AHA) scientific statement for the Contemporary Management of Cardiogenic Shock recommends Phenylephrine, if needed, be considered for initial vasoactive management of cardiogenic shock due to aortic stenosis, mitral stenosis, or dynamic left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction (AHA [van Diepen 2017]).
Hypotension during anesthesia: As a vasoconstrictor in regional analgesia
Nasal congestion: As a decongestant [OTC]
Off Label Uses
Hypotension in patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
Phenylephrine is a pure alpha1 agonist that will increase systemic vascular resistance without increasing heart rate or contractility. This is advantageous in patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and hypotension since increases in both heart rate and contractility may cause the obstruction to worsen, leading to a decrease in cardiac output. Other vasopressors like dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine may increase contractility and/or heart rate. Additional trials may be necessary to further define the role of Phenylephrine in this condition.
Based on the American Urological Association guidelines for the management of priapism, due to the low risk of cardiovascular side effects intracavernous injection of Phenylephrine is recommended for ischemic priapism that persists following aspiration/irrigation.
Phenylephrine is a sympathomimetic amine that acts predominantly on α-adrenergic receptors. It is mainly used to treat nasal congestion, but may also be useful in treating hypotension and shock, hypotension during spinal anaesthesia, prolongation of spinal anaesthesia, paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, symptomatic relief of external or internal hemorrhoids, and to increase blood pressure as an aid in the diagnosis of heart murmurs.
Prolonged exposure to air or strong light may cause oxidation and discoloration. Do not use if solution is brown or contains a precipitate.
Vasoconstriction and Pupil Dilatation
Phenylephrine (Phenylephrine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution) hydrochloride 10 percent ophthalmic solutions are especially useful when rapid and powerful dilatation of the pupil and reduction of congestion in the capillary bed are desired. A drop of a suitable topical anesthetic may be applied, followed in a few minutes by 1 drop of the Phenylephrine (Phenylephrine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution) hydrochloride 10 percent ophthalmic solutions on the upper limbus. The anesthetic prevents stinging and consequent dilution of the solution by lacrimation. It may occasionally be necessary to repeat the instillation after one hour, again preceded by the use of the topical anesthetic.
Uveitis: Posterior Synechiae
Phenylephrine (Phenylephrine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution) hydrochloride 10 percent ophthalmic solutions may be used in patients with uveitis when synechiae are present or may develop. The formation of synechiae may be prevented by the use of the 10 percent ophthalmic solutions and atropine to produce wide dilatation of the pupil. It should be emphasized, however, that the vasoconstrictor effect of Phenylephrine (Phenylephrine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution) hydrochloride may be antagonistic to the increase of local blood flow in uveal infection.
To free recently formed posterior synechiae, 1 drop of the 10 percent ophthalmic solutions may be applied to the upper surface of the cornea. On the following day, treatment may be continued if necessary. In the interim, hot compresses should be applied for five or ten minutes three times a day, with 1 drop of a 1 or 2 percent solution of atropine sulfate before and after each series of compresses.
In certain patients with glaucoma, temporary reduction of intraocular tension may be attained by producing vasoconstriction of the intraocular vessels; this may be accomplished by placing 1 drop of the 10 percent ophthalmic solutions on the upper surface of the cornea. This treatment may be repeated as often as necessary.
Phenylephrine (Phenylephrine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution) hydrochloride may be used with miotics in patients with wide angle glaucoma. It reduces the difficulties experienced by the patient because of the small field produced by miosis, and still it permits and often supports the effect of the miotic in lowering the intraocular pressure. Hence, there may be marked improvement in visual acuity after using Phenylephrine (Phenylephrine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution) hydrochloride in conjunction with miotic drugs.
When a short-acting mydriatic is needed for wide dilatation of the pupil before intraocular surgery, the 10 percent ophthalmic solutions or 2.5 percent ophthalmic solution may be applied topically from 30 to 60 minutes before the operation.
Prior to determination of refractive errors, Phenylephrine (Phenylephrine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution) hydrochloride 2.5 percent ophthalmic solution may be used effectively with homatropine hydrobromide, atropine sulfate, or a combination of homatropine and cocaine hydrochloride.
For adults, a drop of the preferred cycloplegic is placed in each eye, followed in five minutes by 1 drop of Phenylephrine (Phenylephrine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution) hydrochloride 2.5 percent ophthalmic solution and in ten minutes by another drop of the cycloplegic. In 50 to 60 minutes, the eyes are ready for refraction.
For children, a drop of atropine sulfate 1 percent is placed in each eye, followed in 10 to 15 minutes by 1 drop of Phenylephrine (Phenylephrine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution) hydrochloride 2.5 percent ophthalmic solution and in five to ten minutes by a second drop of atropine sulfate 1 percent. In one to two hours, the eyes are ready for refraction.
For a “one application method,” Phenylephrine (Phenylephrine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution) hydrochloride 2.5 percent ophthalmic solution may be combined with a cycloplegic to elicit synergistic action. The additive effect varies depending on the patient. Therefore, when using a “one application method,” it may be desirable to increase the concentration of the cycloplegic.
One drop of Phenylephrine (Phenylephrine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution) hydrochloride 2.5 percent ophthalmic solution is placed in each eye. Sufficient mydriasis to permit examination is produced in 15 to 30 minutes. Dilatation lasts from one to three hours.
Provocative Test for Angle Block in Patients with Glaucoma: The 2.5 percent ophthalmic solution may be used as a provocative test when latent increased intraocular pressure is suspected. Tension is measured before application of Phenylephrine (Phenylephrine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution) hydrochloride and again after dilatation. A 3 to 5 mm of mercury rise in pressure suggests the presence of angle block in patients with glaucoma; however, failure to obtain such a rise does not preclude the presence of glaucoma from other causes.
Shadow Test (Retinoscopy): When dilatation of the pupil without cycloplegic action is desired for the shadow test, the 2.5 percent ophthalmic solution may be used alone.
Blanching Test: One or 2 drops of the 2.5 percent ophthalmic solution should be applied to the injected eye. After five minutes, examine for perilimbal blanching. If blanching occurs, the congestion is superficial and probably does not indicate iritis.
In Mono-Drop ® plastic dropper bottle: Low surface tension solutions
2.5 percent ophthalmic solution - Phenylephrine (Phenylephrine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution) hydrochloride 2.5 percent in a sterile, isotonic, buffered, low surface tension vehicle with sodium phosphate, sodium biphosphate, boric acid, and, as antiseptic preservative, benzalkonium chloride, NF, 1:7500. The pH is adjusted with phosphoric acid or sodium hydroxide. Bottles of 15 mL (NDC 0024-1358-01).
10 percent ophthalmic solution- Phenylephrine (Phenylephrine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution) hydrochloride 10 percent in a sterile, buffered, low surface tension vehicle with sodium phosphate, sodium biphosphate, and, as antiseptic preservative, benzalkonium chloride 1:10,000. The pH is adjusted with phosphoric acid or sodium hydroxide. Bottles of 5 mL (NDC 0024-1359-01).
10 percent ophthalmic solution- Phenylephrine (Phenylephrine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution) hydrochloride 10 percent in a sterile, buffered, viscous vehicle with sodium phosphate, sodium biphosphate, methylcellulose, and, as antiseptic preservative, benzalkonium chloride 1:10,000. The pH is adjusted with phosphoric acid or sodium hydroxide. Bottles of 5 mL (NDC 0024-1362-01).
Store at 25° C (77° F); excursions permitted to 15° - 30° C (59° - 86° F)
Manufactured for Sanofi-Synthelabo Inc. New York, NY 10016 by Abbott Laboratories North Chicago, IL 60064. Revised September 1999. FDA revision date: n/a
Acetaminophen: May increase the serum concentration of Phenylephrine (Systemic). Monitor therapy
Alpha1-Blockers: May diminish the vasoconstricting effect of Alpha1-Agonists. Similarly, Alpha1-Agonists may antagonize Alpha1-Blocker vasodilation. Monitor therapy
AtoMOXetine: May enhance the hypertensive effect of Sympathomimetics. AtoMOXetine may enhance the tachycardic effect of Sympathomimetics. Monitor therapy
Benzylpenicilloyl Polylysine: Alpha1-Agonists may diminish the diagnostic effect of Benzylpenicilloyl Polylysine. Management: Consider use of a histamine skin test as a positive control to assess a patient's ability to mount a wheal and flare response. Consider therapy modification
Cannabinoid-Containing Products: May enhance the tachycardic effect of Sympathomimetics. Exceptions: Cannabidiol. Monitor therapy
Chloroprocaine: May enhance the hypertensive effect of Phenylephrine (Systemic). Monitor therapy
CloZAPine: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Phenylephrine (Systemic). Monitor therapy
Cocaine (Topical): May enhance the hypertensive effect of Sympathomimetics. Management: Consider alternatives to use of this combination when possible. Monitor closely for substantially increased blood pressure or heart rate and for any evidence of myocardial ischemia with concurrent use. Consider therapy modification
Doxofylline: Sympathomimetics may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Doxofylline. Monitor therapy
Ergot Derivatives: May enhance the hypertensive effect of Alpha1-Agonists. Ergot Derivatives may enhance the vasoconstricting effect of Alpha1-Agonists. Exceptions: Ergoloid Mesylates; Nicergoline. Avoid combination
FentaNYL: Alpha1-Agonists may decrease the serum concentration of FentaNYL. Specifically, fentanyl nasal spray serum concentrations may decrease and onset of effect may be delayed. Monitor therapy
Guanethidine: May enhance the arrhythmogenic effect of Sympathomimetics. Guanethidine may enhance the hypertensive effect of Sympathomimetics. Monitor therapy
Hyaluronidase: May enhance the vasoconstricting effect of Phenylephrine (Systemic). Management: Avoid the use of hyaluronidase to enhance dispersion or absorption of Phenylephrine. Use of hyaluronidase for other purposes in patients receiving Phenylephrine may be considered as clinically indicated. Avoid combination
Iobenguane Radiopharmaceutical Products: Alpha1-Agonists may diminish the therapeutic effect of Iobenguane Radiopharmaceutical Products. Management: Discontinue all drugs that may inhibit or interfere with catecholamine transport or uptake for at least 5 biological half-lives before iobenguane administration. Do not administer these drugs until at least 7 days after each iobenguane dose. Avoid combination
Ioflupane I 123: Phenylephrine (Systemic) may diminish the diagnostic effect of Ioflupane I 123. Monitor therapy
Linezolid: May enhance the hypertensive effect of Sympathomimetics. Management: Reduce initial doses of sympathomimetic agents, and closely monitor for enhanced pressor response, in patients receiving linezolid. Specific dose adjustment recommendations are not presently available. Consider therapy modification
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors: May enhance the hypertensive effect of Alpha1-Agonists. While linezolid is expected to interact via this mechanism, management recommendations differ from other monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Refer to linezolid specific monographs for details. Exceptions: Linezolid. Avoid combination
Ozanimod: May enhance the hypertensive effect of Sympathomimetics. Management: Concomitant use of ozanimod with sympathomimetic agents is not recommended. If combined, monitor patients closely for the development of hypertension, including hypertensive crises. Consider therapy modification
Propacetamol: May increase the serum concentration of Phenylephrine (Systemic). Management: Monitor patients closely for increased side effects of Phenylephrine if propacetamol is used concomitantly. Patients with underlying blood pressure issues or arrhythmias may need closer monitoring and may warrant consideration of alternative therapies. Monitor therapy
Solriamfetol: Sympathomimetics may enhance the hypertensive effect of Solriamfetol. Sympathomimetics may enhance the tachycardic effect of Solriamfetol. Monitor therapy
Sympathomimetics: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics. Monitor therapy
Tedizolid: May enhance the hypertensive effect of Sympathomimetics. Tedizolid may enhance the tachycardic effect of Sympathomimetics. Monitor therapy
Tricyclic Antidepressants: May enhance the therapeutic effect of Alpha1-Agonists. Tricyclic Antidepressants may diminish the therapeutic effect of Alpha1-Agonists. Monitor therapy
Phenylephrine side effects
Applies to Phenylephrine: intravenous solution
In addition to its needed effects, some unwanted effects may be caused by Phenylephrine (the active ingredient contained in Phenylephrine). In the event that any of these side effects do occur, they may require medical attention.
If any of the following side effects occur while taking Phenylephrine, check with your doctor or nurse immediately:
Incidence not known:
- Blurred vision
- chest pain or discomfort
- difficult or labored breathing
- fast, slow, or irregular heartbeat
- nausea or vomiting
- pain in the shoulders, arms, jaw, or neck
- pounding in the ears
- tightness in the chest
- unusual tiredness
If any of the following symptoms of overdose occur while taking Phenylephrine, get emergency help immediately:
Symptoms of overdose:
- Feeling of fullness in the head
- pounding or rapid pulse
- tingling in the arms or legs
Minor Side Effects
Some of the side effects that can occur with Phenylephrine may not need medical attention. As your body adjusts to the medicine during treatment these side effects may go away. Your health care professional may also be able to tell you about ways to reduce or prevent some of these side effects. If any of the following side effects continue, are bothersome or if you have any questions about them, check with your health care professional:
Incidence not known:
- itching skin
- pain in the neck
- pain or discomfort in chest, upper stomach, or throat
Do not touch the dropper to any surface, including the eyes or hands. The dropper is sterile. If it becomes contaminated, it could cause an infection in the eye.
If you wear contact lenses, remove them before applying Phenylephrine ophthalmic. Ask your doctor if contact lenses can be reinserted after application of the medication. Phenylephrine ophthalmic may contains preservative (benzalkonium chloride), which may cause discoloration of contact lenses.
Do not use Phenylephrine ophthalmic more often or continuously for longer than 48 to 72 hours without consulting a doctor. Chronic use of this medication may damage the blood vessels (veins and arteries) in the eyes. Consult a doctor if your symptoms do not improve or appear to worsen.
Use caution when driving, operating machinery, or performing other hazardous activities. Phenylephrine ophthalmic may cause blurred vision. If you experience blurred vision, avoid these activities.
Active ingredient matches for Phenylephrine:
|Unit description / dosage (Manufacturer)||Price, USD|
|Injectable; Injection; Phenylephrine Hydrochloride 10 mg / ml|
|Injectable; Injection; Phenylephrine Hydrochloride 1%|
|Mydfrin 2.5% Solution 5ml Bottle||$ 37.10|
|Neo-synephrine 10 mg/ml amp||$ 5.68|
|Mydfrin 2.5% eye drops||$ 5.28|
|Phenylephrine 10 mg/ml vial||$ 3.00|
|Phenylephrine 2.5% eye drop||$ 2.09|
|Neofrin 10% eye drops||$ 1.93|
|Ak-dilate 10% eye drops||$ 1.34|
|Phenylephrine hcl crystals||$ 1.34|
|Phenylephrine 10% eye drops||$ 1.25|
|Phenylephrine-ns 0.8 mg/10 ml||$ 1.20|
|Phenylephrine-ns 0.4 mg/10 ml||$ 1.17|
|Mydfrin 2.5 % Solution||$ 1.09|
|Neofrin 2.5% eye drops||$ 0.60|
|Ak-dilate 2.5% eye drops||$ 0.45|
|Neo-synephrine 0.25% drops||$ 0.36|
|Hemorrhoidal suppository||$ 0.28|
|Neo-synephrine 12 hour spray||$ 0.28|
|Neo-synephrine 1% drops||$ 0.26|
|Sudafed pe 10 mg tablet||$ 0.25|
|Neo-synephrine 0.5% drops||$ 0.23|
|Little noses decon nose drp||$ 0.22|
|Wal-phed pe 10 mg tablet||$ 0.22|
|Tur-bi-kal nose drops||$ 0.21|
|Industrial 0.12% eye drops||$ 0.17|
|Ephrine 1% nose drops||$ 0.15|
|Phenylephrine 10 mg tablet||$ 0.08|
|Rhinall 0.25% nose drops||$ 0.07|
|Non-pseudo sinus decongest tablet||$ 0.05|
|Pv nasal decongestant 5 mg tablet||$ 0.03|
|Phenylephrine tablet 10 mg/1 (Rebel Distributors Corp (US))|
List of Phenylephrine substitutes (brand and generic names):
|Phenylephrin Vision (Bulgaria)|
|Phenylephrine 15% (Belgium)|
|Phenylephrine 2.5% Misr (Egypt)|
|Phényléphrine Aguettant (France)|
|Phenylephrine Aguettant (Belgium)|
|Phenylephrine Amdipharm (United Kingdom)|
|Phenylephrine Beacon (Malta, United Kingdom)|
|Phenylephrine Bournonville (Luxembourg)|
|Phenylephrine Chewable Tablets|
|Phenylephrine chlorhydrate Minims (Belgium)|
|Phenylephrine Cooper (Greece)|
|Phenylephrine Covan (South Africa)|
|Phenylephrine Dissolving Tablets|
|Phenylephrine Harvest Pharm (China)|
|Phenylephrine HCl Actavis (Thailand)|
|Phenylephrine HCl Silom Medical (Thailand)|
|Phenylephrine HCl Silom Medical 10 % x 5 mL x 12's (Silom Medical)|
|Phenylephrine HCl Silom Medical eye drops 10 % 5 mL x 12 x 1's (Silom Medical)|
|Phenylephrine Hydrochloride 10% Minims (Kuwait)|
|Phenylephrine hydrochloride Bausch & Lomb (Sweden)|
|Phenylephrine Hydrochloride BioSyent (Canada)|
|Phenylephrine hydrochloride Chauvin (Sweden)|
|Phenylephrine Hydrochloride Omega (Canada)|
|Phenylephrine Hydrochloride Sandoz (Canada)|
|Phenylephrine Minims (Belgium)|
|Phenylephrine Orally Disintegrating Strips|
|Phenylephrine P & D (Malta)|
|Phényléphrine Renaudin (France)|
|Phenylephrine Renaudin (France)|
|Phenylephrine Unimedic (United Kingdom)|
|Phenyleprine Hydrochloride Wu Fu (Taiwan)|
|Poen Efrina (Argentina)|
- PubChem. "phenylephrine". https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/com... (accessed September 17, 2018).
- DrugBank. "phenylephrine". http://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00388 (accessed September 17, 2018).
- MeSH. "Cardiotonic Agents". https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/68... (accessed September 17, 2018).
ReviewsThe results of a survey conducted on ndrugs.com for Phenylephrine are given in detail below. The results of the survey conducted are based on the impressions and views of the website users and consumers taking Phenylephrine. We implore you to kindly base your medical condition or therapeutic choices on the result or test conducted by a physician or licensed medical practitioners.
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Information checked by Dr. Sachin Kumar, MD Pharmacology