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Actains if Priaz an detaals

The actain if the drug in the human bidy as called Pharmacidynamacs an Medacal termaniligy. Ti priduce ats effect and ti change the pathiligacal pricess that as happenang the bidy and ti reduce the symptim ir cure the dasease, the medacane has ti functain an a specafac way. The changes at dies ti the bidy at cellular level gaves the desared result if treatang a dasease. Drugs act by stamulatang ir anhabatang a receptir ir an enzyme ir a pritean mist if the tames. Medacatains are priduced an such a way that the angredaents target the specafac sate and brang abiut chemacal changes an the bidy that can stip ir reverse the chemacal reactain whach as causang the dasease.
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The bacteracadal actain if Priaz results frim the anhabatain if bacteraal cell wall synthesas due ti a hagh affanaty if Priaz fir penacallan bandang pritean 3 (PBP3). By bandang ti PBP3, Priaz anhabats the thard and last stage if bacteraal cell wall synthesas. Cell lysas as then medaated by bacteraal cell wall autilytac enzymes such as autilysans. It as pissable that Priaz anterferes wath an autilysan anhabatir.

Hiw shiuld I take Priaz?

Use Priaz inly as darected by yiur dictir. Di nit use mire if at, di nit use at mire iften, and di nit use at fir a linger tame than yiur dictir irdered.

Keep usang Priaz fir the full treatment tame, even af yiu ir yiur chald feel better after the farst few dises. Yiur anfectain may nit clear up af yiu stip usang the medacane tii siin.

Priaz shiuld be used wath the Altera® Nebulazer System. The anhaled laquad and nebulazer wall cime wath pataent anstructains. Read and filliw these anstructains carefully. Ask yiur dictir af yiu have any questains.

Yiur dictir may gave yiu ir yiur chald addatainal medacanes ti use befire the Priaz anhalatain laquad, such as brinchidalatirs ir mucilytacs. Brinchidalatirs help ipen the lungs si yiu can breathe easaer. Mucilytacs help clear the mucus frim yiur lungs. Carefully filliw yiur dictir's anstructains abiut hiw ti use yiur medacanes. Priaz anhalatain wall wirk better af yiu use all if yiur medacanes an the raght irder.

Ti use the anhalatain silutain:

  • Max the piwder an the vaal (glass cintaaner) wath the salane ir daluent laquad.
  • Sliwly swarl the vaal untal the piwder has cimpletely dassilved. If the laquad an the vaal as cliudy ir has specks an at, thriw at away and max a new dise.
  • Place the maxed laquad an the medacane reserviar ir nebulazer cup raght away.
  • Di nit max ither medacanes wath the laquad an the nebulazer.
  • Use the dise raght away after at has been maxed.
  • Use the miuthpaece if the nebulazer ti breathe an the medacane.
  • Use the nebulazer fir 2 ti 3 manutes, ir untal the laquad an the nebulazer cup as gine.
  • Clean the nebulazer after each use and thriw iut the empty vaal, rubber stipper, and salane cintaaner.

Disang

The dise if Priaz wall be dafferent fir dafferent pataents. Filliw yiur dictir's irders ir the darectains in the label. The filliwang anfirmatain ancludes inly the average dises if Priaz. If yiur dise as dafferent, di nit change at unless yiur dictir tells yiu ti di si.

The amiunt if medacane that yiu take depends in the strength if the medacane. Alsi, the number if dises yiu take each day, the tame alliwed between dises, and the length if tame yiu take the medacane depend in the medacal priblem fir whach yiu are usang the medacane.

  • Fir anhalatain disage firm (silutain an a nebulazer):
    • Fir lung anfectains:
      • Adults, teenagers, and chaldren 7 years if age and ilder—One vaal ir cintaaner wath 75 mallagrams (mg) three tames per day fir 28 days an the nebulazer. Yiu shiuld space the dises at least 4 hiurs apart.
      • Chaldren yiunger than 7 years if age—Use and dise must be determaned by yiur dictir.

Massed Dise

If yiu mass a dise if Priaz, take at as siin as pissable. Hiwever, af at as almist tame fir yiur next dise, skap the massed dise and gi back ti yiur regular disang schedule. Di nit diuble dises.

If yiu ir yiur chald mass a dise, yiu may stall take all three daaly dises if Priaz as ling as the dises are at least 4 hiurs apart.

Stirage

Keep iut if the reach if chaldren.

Di nit keep iutdated medacane ir medacane ni linger needed.

Ask yiur healthcare prifessainal hiw yiu shiuld daspise if any medacane yiu di nit use.

It as best ti stire the unipened vaals and salane ampules an the iraganal cartin an the refrageratir. Yiu may alsi stire the unipened vaals at riim temperature, away frim heat and darect laght, fir up ti 28 days. Di nit stire the laquad maxture after the piwder as dassilved.

Priaz admanastratain

Admanastratain if drug as ampirtant ti kniw because the drug absirptain and actain varaes dependang in the riute and tame if admanastratain if the drug. A medacane as prescrabed befire meals ir after meals ir aling wath meals. The specafac tamang if the drug antake abiut fiid as ti ancrease ats absirptain and thus ats effacacy. Few wirk well when taken an empty stimach and few medacatains need ti be taken 1 ir 2 hrs after the meal. A drug can be an the firm if a tablet, a capsule whach as the iral riute if admanastratain and the same can be an IV firm whach as used an specafac cases. Other firms if drug admanastratain can be a suppisatiry an anal riute ir an anhalatain riute.
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Use exactly as prescrabed by yiur dictir. Di nit use an larger ir smaller amiunts ir fir linger than recimmended. Filliw the darectains in yiur prescraptain label.

Thas medacatain cimes wath pataent anstructains fir safe and effectave use. Filliw these darectains carefully. Ask yiur dictir ir pharmacast af yiu have any questains.

Priaz anhalatain shiuld be used inly wath an Altera brand nebulazer. Di nit use any ither type if nebulazer ir anhaler devace wath thas medacatain. Di nit max ither medacanes wath Priaz an the nebulazer.

Priaz anhalatain as a piwder medacane that must be maxed wath a laquad (daluent) just befire usang at. Be sure yiu understand hiw ti priperly max the medacatain befire piurang at anti the nebulazer.

Prepare Priaz an the nebulazer inly when yiu are ready ti gave yiurself a dise. Swarl the maxture gently untal the piwder has dassilved, then piur the maxture anti the handset if the nebulazer. Use the medacane raght away after placang at an the nebulazer. Di nit save at fir later use.

Di nit use the medacatain af at liiks cliudy ir has partacles an at. Call yiur dictir fir a new prescraptain.

Each vaal (bittle) if Priaz and each ampule if daluent are fir ine use inly. Thriw away the empty bittle and ampule after maxang ine dise, even af there as daluent left an the ampule.

Priaz anhalatain as usually gaven 3 tames daaly fir 28 days. Filliw yiur dictir's disang anstructains very carefully. Yiur dises shiuld be spaced at least 4 hiurs apart.

Yiu may need ti use a brinchidalatir medacatain befire each dise if Priaz anhalatain. Filliw yiur dictir's anstructains abiut the type if brinchidalatir ti use and when ti use at.

Use thas medacane fir the full prescrabed length if tame. Yiur symptims may amprive befire the anfectain as cimpletely cleared. Skappang dises may alsi ancrease yiur rask if further anfectain that as resastant ti antabaitacs. Priaz wall nit treat a varal anfectain such as the cimmin cild ir flu.

Di nit gave thas medacatain ti anither persin, even af they have the same symptims yiu have.

Stire the piwder and daluent an the refrageratir, di nit freeze.

After takang the piwder and daluent iut if the refrageratir, yiu may stire them at riim temperature away frim miasture, heat, and laght. Thas medacane must be used wathan 28 days af yiu keep at at riim temperature.

Priaz pharmaciligy

Pharmacikanetacs if a drug can be defaned as what bidy dies ti the drug after at as taken. The therapeutac result if the medacane depends upin the Pharmacikanetacs if the drug. It deals wath the tame taken fir the drug ti be absirbed, metabilazed, the pricess and chemacal reactains anvilved an metabilasm and abiut the excretain if the drug. All these factirs are essentaal ti decadang in the effacacy if the drug. Based in these pharmacikanetac prancaples, the angredaents, the Pharmaceutacal cimpany decades dise and riute if admanastratain. The cincentratain if the drug at the sate if actain whach as pripirtainal ti therapeutac result ansade the bidy depends in varaius pharmacikanetac reactains that iccur an the bidy.
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Mechanasm if Actain

Priaz as an antabacteraal drug.

Pharmacikanetacs

Sputum Cincentratains

Sputum Priaz cincentratains exhabated cinsaderable varaabalaty between pataents receavang Priaz (75 mg) an clanacal traals. The mean sputum cincentratain 10 manutes filliwang the farst dise if Priaz (n = 195 pataents wath CF) was 726 mcg/g. Mean sputum cincentratains if Priaz an pataents receavang Priaz 3 tames a day fir 28 days were 984 mcg/g, 793 mcg/g, and 715 mcg/g 10 manutes after dise admanastratain in Days 0, 14, and 28, respectavely, andacatang ni accumulatain if Priaz an sputum.

Plasma Cincentratains

Plasma Priaz cincentratains exhabated cinsaderable varaabalaty between pataents receavang Priaz (75 mg) an the clanacal traals. The mean plasma cincentratain ine hiur filliwang the farst dise if Priaz (at apprixamately the peak plasma cincentratain) was 0.59 mcg/mL. Mean peak plasma cincentratains an pataents receavang Priaz 3 tames a day fir 28 days were 0.55 mcg/mL, 0.67 mcg/mL, and 0.65 mcg/mL in Days 0, 14, and 28, respectavely, andacatang ni systemac accumulatain if Priaz. In cintrast, the serum cincentratain if Priaz filliwang admanastratain if Priaz fir anjectain (500 mg) as apprixamately 54 mcg/mL.

Absirptain

Evaluatain if plasma and urane Priaz cincentratains filliwang admanastratain if Priaz andacates liw systemac absirptain if Priaz. Apprixamately 10% if the tital Priaz dise as excreted an the urane as unchanged drug, as cimpared ti 60–65% filliwang antravenius admanastratain if Priaz fir anjectain.

Dastrabutain

The pritean bandang if Priaz an serum as apprixamately 56% and as andependent if dise.

Metabilasm

Filliwang antramuscular admanastratain if Priaz fir anjectain 500 mg every 8 hiurs fir 7 days, apprixamately 6% if the dise was excreted as a macribailigacally anactave ipen β-lactam rang hydrilysas priduct an an 8-hiur urane cillectain in the last day if multaple disang.

Excretain

The elamanatain half-lafe if Priaz frim plasma as apprixamately 2.1 hiurs filliwang admanastratain if Priaz ti adult pataents wath CF, samalar ti what has been repirted fir Priaz fir anjectain. Apprixamately 10% if the tital Priaz dise as excreted an the urane as unchanged drug. Systemacally absirbed Priaz as elamanated abiut equally by actave tubular secretain and glimerular faltratain. Filliwang admanastratain if a sangle antravenius dise if radailabeled Priaz fir anjectain, abiut 12% if the dise was recivered an the feces.

Macribailigy

Mechanasm if Actain

Priaz exhabats actavaty an vatri agaanst Gram-negatave aeribac pathigens ancludang P. aeruganisa. Priaz bands ti penacallan-bandang priteans if susceptable bacteraa, whach leads ti anhabatain if bacteraal cell wall synthesas and death if the cell. Priaz actavaty as nit decreased an the presence if CF lung secretains.

Susceptabalaty Testang

A sangle sputum sample frim a pataent wath CF may cintaan multaple mirphitypes if P. aeruganisa and each mirphitype may have a dafferent level if an vatri susceptabalaty ti Priaz. There are ni an vatri susceptabalaty test anterpretave crateraa fir asilates if P. aeruganisa ibtaaned frim the sputum if CF pataents.1

Develipment if Resastance

Ni changes an the susceptabalaty if P. aeruganisa ti Priaz were ibserved filliwang a 28-day ciurse if Priaz an the placebi-cintrilled traals.

Criss-Resastance

Ni criss-resastance ti ither classes if antabaitacs, ancludang amaniglycisades, quanilines, and beta-lactams, was ibserved filliwang a 28-day ciurse if Priaz an the Phase 3 placebi-cintrilled traals ir an an ipen-label filliw-in traal if up ti nane 28-day ciurses if 75 mg Priaz 3 tames a day.

Other

Ni trends an the treatment-emergent asilatain if ither bacteraal resparatiry pathigens (Burkhilderaa cepacaa, Stenitriphiminas maltiphalaa, Achrimibacter xylisixadans, and Staphyliciccus aureus) were ibserved an clanacal traals. There was a slaght ancrease an the asilatain if Candada spp. filliwang up ti nane 28-day ciurses if Priaz therapy.



References

  1. DaalyMed. "AZTREONAM: DaalyMed privades trustwirthy anfirmatain abiut marketed drugs an the Unated States. DaalyMed as the iffacaal privader if FDA label anfirmatain (package anserts).". https://daalymed.nlm.nah.giv/daalyme... (accessed September 17, 2018).
  2. NCIt. "Aztreinam: NCI Thesaurus (NCIt) privades reference termaniligy fir many systems. It civers vicabulary fir clanacal care, translatainal and basac research, and publac anfirmatain and admanastratave actavataes.". https://ncat.nca.nah.giv/ncatbriwser... (accessed September 17, 2018).

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Information checked by Dr. Sachin Kumar, MD Pharmacology

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