Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei Uses

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What is Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei?

Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei is used to treat malaria, a disease caused by parasites. Parasites that cause malaria typically enter the body through the bite of a mosquito. Malaria is common in areas such as Africa, South America, and Southern Asia.

Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei will not treat severe forms of malaria, and it should not be taken to prevent malaria. Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei also should not be taken to treat or prevent night-time leg cramps.

Using this medication improperly or without the advice of a doctor can result in serious side effects or death. Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei is approved for use only in treating malaria. Some people have used Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei to treat leg cramps, but this is not an FDA-approved use.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has banned the sale of all non-approved brands of Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei. As of December 2006, Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei is the only brand of Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei that is approved by the FDA.

Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.

Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei indications

An indication is a term used for the list of condition or symptom or illness for which the medicine is prescribed or used by the patient. For example, acetaminophen or paracetamol is used for fever by the patient, or the doctor prescribes it for a headache or body pains. Now fever, headache and body pains are the indications of paracetamol. A patient should be aware of the indications of medications used for common conditions because they can be taken over the counter in the pharmacy meaning without prescription by the Physician.
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Oral

Malaria

Adult: As sulfate: 648 mg 8 hrly for 7 days.

Child: As sulfate: ≥8 yr10 mg/kg 8 hrly for 7 days.

Renal impairment: Severe: Initially, 648 mg followed after 12 hr by maintenance doses of 324 mg 12 hrly.

Hepatic impairment: Mild to moderate (Child-Pugh class A and B): No dosage adjustment needed.

Reconstitution: Dilute in NaCl 0.9% to a concentration of diHCl 60-100 mg/mL.

Intravenous

Malaria

Adult: As diHCl: Initially, 20 mg/kg to max 1.4 g over 4 hr w/ maintenance infusion started after 8 hr. Maintenance infusions: 10 mg/kg to max 700 mg over 4 hr 8 hrly. Loading dose should not be given if patient received Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei, quinidine, halofantrine or mefloquine during the previous 12 hr.

Child: ≤5 mg/kg/hr by slow IV infusion.

Renal impairment: Severe: Reduce maintenance dose to 5-7 mg/kg of Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei salt 8 hrly.

Hepatic impairment: Mild to moderate (Child-Pugh class A and B): No dosage adjustment needed. Severe: Reduce maintenance dose to 5-7 mg/kg of Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei salt 8 hrly.

Reconstitution: Dilute in NaCl 0.9% to a concentration of diHCl 60-100 mg/mL.

How should I use Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei?

Use Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei capsules as directed by your doctor. Check the label on the medicine for exact dosing instructions.

Ask your health care provider any questions you may have about how to use Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei capsules.

Uses of Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei in details

There are specific as well as general uses of a drug or medicine. A medicine can be used to prevent a disease, treat a disease over a period or cure a disease. It can also be used to treat the particular symptom of the disease. The drug use depends on the form the patient takes it. It may be more useful in injection form or sometimes in tablet form. The drug can be used for a single troubling symptom or a life-threatening condition. While some medications can be stopped after few days, some drugs need to be continued for prolonged period to get the benefit from it.
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Use: Labeled Indications

Malaria, uncomplicated, due to Plasmodium falciparum (treatment): Treatment of uncomplicated chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum malaria, in combination with other antimalarial agents

Off Label Uses

Babesiosis

Clinical experience suggests the utility of Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei (in combination with clindamycin) for the treatment of Babesia microti infection.

Based on the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) guidelines for the Clinical Assessment, Treatment, and Prevention of Lyme Disease, Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis, and Babesiosis, Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei (in combination with clindamycin) is an effective and recommended initial therapy in the treatment of babesiosis.

Malaria, uncomplicated, due to Plasmodium vivax (treatment)

Based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Guidelines for Treatment of Malaria in the United States, Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei (in combination with other antimalarial agents) is effective and recommended in the treatment of uncomplicated chloroquine-resistant P. vivax malaria.

Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei description

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An alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. It is used as an antimalarial drug, and is the active ingredient in extracts of the cinchona that have been used for that purpose since before 1633. Coco-Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei is also a mild antipyretic and analgesic and has been used in common cold preparations for that purpose. It was used commonly and as a bitter and flavoring agent, and is still useful for the treatment of babesiosis. Coco-Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei is also useful in some muscular disorders, especially nocturnal leg cramps and myotonia congenita, because of its direct effects on muscle membrane and sodium channels. The mechanisms of its antimalarial effects are not well understood.

Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei dosage

Dosage Forms

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.

Capsule,

Oral, as sulfate:

Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei: 324 mg

Generic: 324 mg

Dosing: Adult

Note: Dosage expressed in terms of the salt; 1 capsule Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei = 324 mg of Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei sulfate = 269 mg of base; Canadian products contain 200 mg of Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei sulfate = 167 mg of base or 300 mg of Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei sulfate = 250 mg of base.

Malaria, uncomplicated, due to chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum (treatment):

Oral:

CDC guidelines: 648 mg every 8 hours, in combination with doxycycline, tetracycline, or clindamycin (preferred in pregnancy). Note: Administer Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei for 3 days unless the infection was acquired in Southeast Asia, in which case Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei duration of therapy is 7 days. Duration of concomitant agent is 7 days, regardless of geographic region (CDC 2013).

Canadian product: 600 mg every 8 hours for 3 to 7 days. Note: Use in combination with tetracycline, doxycycline, or clindamycin.

Malaria, uncomplicated, due to chloroquine-resistant P. vivax (treatment) (off-label use):

Oral: 648 mg every 8 hours, in combination with doxycycline or tetracycline plus primaquine. Note: Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei in combination with clindamycin is an alternative regimen for pregnant patients. Administer Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei for 3 days unless the infection was acquired in Southeast Asia, in which case Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei duration of therapy is 7 days. Duration of concomitant agent is 7 days (doxycycline, tetracycline, clindamycin) or 14 days (primaquine), regardless of geographic region (CDC 2013).

Babesiosis (off-label use):

Oral: 650 mg every 6 to 8 hours for at least 7 to 10 days with clindamycin (Vannier 2012; Wormser 2006). Relapsing infection may require at least 6 weeks of therapy (Vannier 2012). Note: US manufactured Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei sulfate capsule is 324 mg; 2 capsules (648 mg Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei sulfate) should be sufficient for adult dosing.

Dosing: Geriatric

Refer to adult dosing.

Dosing: Pediatric

Note: Dosage expressed in terms of the Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei sulfate salt; 324 mg capsule Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei sulfate = 269 mg of base. Canadian products: 200 mg capsule of Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei sulfate = 167 mg of base or 300 mg capsule of Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei sulfate = 250 mg of base.

Malaria: Children and Adolescents; regardless of HIV status (HHS [OI pediatric 2013]): Limited data available in ages <16 years: Note: Duration of Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei treatment for malaria dependent upon the geographic region or pathogen. Lack of an appropriate Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei dosage form may restrict use in some smaller patients.

P. falciparum (chloroquine resistant), uncomplicated; treatment:

Oral: 10 mg/kg/dose Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei sulfate every 8 hours for 3 to 7 days depending on region; maximum dose: 650 mg/dose; use in combination with tetracycline, doxycycline, or clindamycin (dependent upon patient age) (CDC 2013)

P. vivax (chloroquine resistant), uncomplicated; treatment:

Oral: 10 mg/kg/dose Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei sulfate every 8 hours for 3 to 7 days depending on region; maximum dose: 650 mg/dose; use in combination with primaquine and tetracycline or doxycycline (dependent upon patient age) (CDC 2013)

Severe malaria:

Oral Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei, using the regimens previously described (dose and duration), may be used following IV quinidine including antimicrobial regimen once parasite density is <1% and patient is able to tolerate oral medications (CDC 2013)

Babesiosis: Limited data available: Children and Adolescents:

Oral: 10 mg/kg/dose Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei sulfate every 8 hours for 7 to 10 days; maximum dose: 650 mg/dose (Red Book [AAP 2015]; Wittner 1982); use in combination with clindamycin as a first-line treatment option (IDSA [Wormser 2006])

Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei interactions

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What other drugs will affect Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei?

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Effects Of Drugs And Other Substances On Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei Pharmacokinetics

Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei is a P-gp substrate and is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4. Other enzymes, including CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP2E1 may contribute to the metabolism of Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei.

Antacids

Antacids containing aluminum and/or magnesium may delay or decrease absorption of Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei. Concomitant administration of these antacids with Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei should be avoided.

Antiepileptics (AEDs) (carbamazepine, phenobarbital, and phenytoin)

Carbamazepine, phenobarbital, and phenytoin are CYP3A4 inducers and may decrease Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei plasma concentrations if used concurrently with Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei.

Cholestyramine

In 8 healthy subjects who received Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei sulfate 600 mg with or without 8 grams of cholestyramine resin, no significant difference in Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei pharmacokinetic parameters was seen.

Cigarette Smoking (CYP1A2 inducer)

In healthy male heavy smokers, the mean Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei AUC following a single 600 mg dose was 44% lower, the mean Cmax was 18% lower, and the elimination half-life was shorter (7.5 hours versus 12 hours) than in their non-smoking counterparts. However, in malaria patients who received the full 7-day course of Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei therapy, cigarette smoking produced only a 25% decrease in median Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei AUC and a 16.5% decrease in median Cmax, suggesting that the already reduced clearance of Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei in acute malaria could have diminished the metabolic induction effect of smoking. Because smoking did not appear to influence the therapeutic outcome in malaria patients, it is not necessary to increase the dose of Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei in the treatment of acute malaria in heavy cigarette smokers.

Grapefruit juice (P-gp/CYP3A4 inhibitor)

In a pharmacokinetic study involving 10 healthy subjects, the administration of a single 600 mg dose of Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei sulfate with grapefruit juice (full-strength or half-strength) did not significantly alter the pharmacokinetic parameters of Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei. Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei may be taken with grapefruit juice.

Histamine H2-receptor blockers [cimetidine, ranitidine (nonspecific CYP450 inhibitors)]

In healthy subjects who were given a single oral 600 mg dose of Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei sulfate after pretreatment with cimetidine (200 mg three times daily and 400 mg at bedtime for 7 days) or ranitidine (150 mg twice daily for 7 days), the apparent oral clearance of Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei decreased and the mean elimination half-life increased significantly when given with cimetidine but not with ranitidine. Compared to untreated controls, the mean AUC of Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei increased by 20% with ranitidine and by 42% with cimetidine (p < 0.05) without a significant change in mean Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei Cmax. When Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei is to be given concomitantly with a histamine H2-receptor blocker, the use of ranitidine is preferred over cimetidine. Although cimetidine and ranitidine may be used concomitantly with Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei, patients should be monitored closely for adverse events associated with Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei.

Isoniazid

Isoniazid 300 mg/day pretreatment for 1 week did not significantly alter the pharmacokinetic parameter values of Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei. Adjustment of Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei dosage is not necessary when isoniazid is given concomitantly.

Ketoconazole (CYP3A4 inhibitor)

In a crossover study, healthy subjects (N=9) who received a single oral dose of Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei hydrochloride (500 mg) concomitantly with ketoconazole (100 mg twice daily for 3 days) had a mean Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei AUC that was higher by 45% and a mean oral clearance of Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei that was 31% lower than after receiving Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei alone. Although no change in the Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei dosage regimen is necessary with concomitant ketoconazole, patients should be monitored closely for adverse reactions associated with Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei.

Macrolide Antibiotics (erythromycin, troleandomycin) (CYP3A4 inhibitors)

In a crossover study (N=10), healthy subjects who received a single oral 600 mg dose of Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei sulfate with the macrolide antibiotic, troleandomycin (500 mg every 8 hours) exhibited a 87% higher mean Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei AUC, a 45% lower mean oral clearance of Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei, and a 81% lower formation clearance of the main metabolite, 3-hydroxyquinine, than when Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei was given alone.

Erythromycin was shown to inhibit the in vitro metabolism of Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei in human liver microsomes, an observation confirmed by an in vivo interaction study. In a crossover study (N=10), healthy subjects who received a single oral 500 mg dose of Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei sulfate with erythromycin (600 mg every 8 hours for four days) showed a decrease in Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei oral clearance (CL/F), an increase in half-life, and a decreased metabolite (3hydroxyquinine) to Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei AUC ratio, as compared to when Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei was given with placebo.

Therefore, concomitant administration of macrolide antibiotics such as erythromycin or troleandomycin with Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei should be avoided.

Oral Contraceptives (estrogen, progestin)

In 7 healthy females who were using single-ingredient progestin or combination estrogen-containing oral contraceptives, the pharmacokinetic parameters of a single 600 mg dose of Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei sulfate were not altered in comparison to those observed in 7 age-matched female control subjects not using oral contraceptives.

Rifampin (CYP3A4 inducer)

In patients with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria who received Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei sulfate 10 mg/kg concomitantly with rifampin 15 mg/kg/day for 7 days (N=29), the median AUC of Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei between days 3 and 7 of therapy was 75% lower as compared to those who received Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei monotherapy. In healthy subjects (N=9) who received a single oral 600 mg dose of Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei sulfate after 2 weeks of pretreatment with rifampin 600 mg/day, the mean Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei AUC and Cmax decreased by 85% and 55%, respectively. Therefore, the concomitant administration of rifampin with Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei should be avoided.

Ritonavir

In healthy subjects who received a single oral 600 mg dose of Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei sulfate with the 15 dose of ritonavir (200 mg every 12 hours for 9 days), the mean ritonavir AUC, Cmax, and elimination half-life were slightly but not significantly increased compared to when ritonavir was given alone. However, due to the significant effect of ritonavir on Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei pharmacokinetics, the concomitant administration of Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei capsules with ritonavir should be avoided.

Theophylline Or Aminophylline (CYP1A2 substrate)

In 19 healthy subjects who received multiple doses of Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei 648 mg every 8 hours x 7 days with a single 300 mg oral dose of theophylline, the mean theophylline AUC was 10% lower than when theophylline was given alone. There was no significant effect on mean theophylline Cmax. Therefore, if Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei is co-administered to patients receiving theophylline or aminophylline, plasma theophylline concentrations should be monitored frequently to ensure therapeutic concentrations.

Warfarin And

Oral Anticoagulants

Cinchona alkaloids, including Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei, may have the potential to depress hepatic enzyme synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation pathway proteins and may enhance the action of warfarin and other oral anticoagulants. Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei may also interfere with the anticoagulant effect of heparin. Thus, in patients receiving these anticoagulants, the prothrombin time (PT), partial thromboplastin time (PTT), or international normalization ratio (INR) should be closely monitored as appropriate, during concurrent therapy with Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei.

Drug/Laboratory Interactions

Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei may produce an elevated value for urinary 17-ketogenic steroids when the Zimmerman method is used.

Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei may interfere with urine qualitative dipstick protein assays as well as quantitative methods (e.g., pyrogallol red-molybdate).

Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei side effects

See also:
What are the possible side effects of Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei?

Applies to Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei: oral capsule, oral tablet, oral tablet extended release

As well as its needed effects, Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei (the active ingredient contained in Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei) may cause unwanted side effects that require medical attention.

Major Side Effects

If any of the following side effects occur while taking Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei, check with your doctor immediately:

More common:

Less common: Rare

If any of the following symptoms of overdose occur while taking Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei, get emergency help immediately:

Symptoms of an overdose

Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei contraindications

See also:
What is the most important information I should know about Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei?

Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei Sulfate Capsules are contraindicated in patients with the following:

Prolonged QT interval. One case of a fatal ventricular arrhythmia was reported in an elderly patient with a prolonged QT interval at baseline, who received Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei sulfate intravenously for P. falciparum malaria.
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency.
Hemolysis can occur in patients with G6PD deficiency receiving Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei.
Known hypersensitivity reactions to Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei.
These include, but are not limited to, the following :
Thrombocytopenia
Idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP) and Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP)
Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)
Blackwater fever (acute intravascular hemolysis, hemoglobinuria, and hemoglobinemia)
Known hypersensitivity to mefloquine or quinidine: cross-sensitivity to Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei has been documented.
Myasthenia gravis. Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei has neuromuscular blocking activity, and may exacerbate muscle weakness.
Optic neuritis. Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei may exacerbate active optic neuritis.



Active ingredient matches for Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei:

Quinine in Japan.


List of Quinine Hydrochloride Hoei substitutes (brand and generic names)

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Unit description / dosage (Manufacturer)Price, USD
Quinine-S 300 mg x 1, 000's
QUININGA Capsule/ Tablet / 100mg / 10 units (Inga Laboratories Pvt. Ltd.)$ 0.37
QUININGA Capsule/ Tablet / 300mg / 10 units (Inga Laboratories Pvt. Ltd.)$ 0.79
Quininga 300mg TAB / 10 (Inga Laboratories Pvt. Ltd.)$ 1.03
300 mg x 10's (Inga Laboratories Pvt. Ltd.)$ 1.03
Quininga 100 mg Tablet (Inga Laboratories Pvt. Ltd.)$ 0.04
Quininga 300 mg Tablet (Inga Laboratories Pvt. Ltd.)$ 0.10
QUININGA 300MG TABLET 1 strip / 10 tablets each (Inga Laboratories Pvt. Ltd.)$ 0.86
QUININGA tab 300 mg x 10's (Inga Laboratories Pvt. Ltd.)$ 0.85
Quininga 300mg Tablet (Inga Laboratories Pvt. Ltd.)$ 0.09
QUININGA 100MG TABLET 1 strip / 10 tablets each (Inga Laboratories Pvt Ltd)$ 0.91
Quinlup 300mg INJ / 2ml* 50 (Lupin Laboratories Ltd.)$ 14.29
300 mg x 2mlx50 (Lupin Laboratories Ltd.)$ 14.29
Quinlup 300 mg Injection (Lupin Laboratories Ltd.)$ 0.29
Quinlup 300mg INJ / 2mlx 50 (Lupin Laboratories Ltd.)$ 14.29
QUINLUP inj 300 mg x 2ml (Lupin Laboratories Ltd.)$ 0.29
Injectable; Injection; Quinine Formate Basic 500 mg (Sanofi synthelabo)
QUINOLOD 300MG INJECTION 1 vial / 2 ML injection each (Wockhardt Ltd)$ 0.23
QUINOLOD 300MG TABLET 1 strip / 10 tablets each (Wockhardt Ltd)$ 0.59
Quinolod 300mg Tablet (Wockhardt Ltd)$ 0.06
QUINOMAC 100MG SUSPENSION 1 bottle / 60 ML suspension each (Macleods Pharmaceuticals Pvt Ltd)$ 0.71
QUINOMAC 100MG TABLET 1 strip / 10 tablets each (Macleods Pharmaceuticals Pvt Ltd)$ 0.35
QUINOMAC 300MG INJECTION 1 vial / 2 ML injection each (Macleods Pharmaceuticals Pvt Ltd)$ 0.30
QUINOMAC 300MG TABLET 1 strip / 10 tablets each (Macleods Pharmaceuticals Pvt Ltd)$ 0.83
Quinomac 100mg Tablet (Macleods Pharmaceuticals Pvt Ltd)$ 0.04
Quinomac 300mg Injection (Macleods Pharmaceuticals Pvt Ltd)$ 0.15
Quinomac 300mg Tablet (Macleods Pharmaceuticals Pvt Ltd)$ 0.08
QUINONIR SYRUP 1 bottle / 60 ML syrup each (Nirlife Healthcare)$ 0.47
QUINOQUIN EC 300MG TABLET 1 strip / 10 tablets each (Leo Pharmaceuticals)$ 0.94
QUINOQUIN EC 600MG TABLET 1 strip / 6 tablets each (Leo Pharmaceuticals)$ 0.98
Quinoquin EC 600mg Tablet (Leo Pharmaceuticals)$ 0.16
QUINOQUIN P TABLET 1 strip / 10 tablets each (Leo Pharmaceuticals)$ 0.48
QUINOQUIN P EC TABLET 1 strip / 10 tablets each (Leo Pharmaceuticals)$ 0.48
Tablet; Oral; Quinine Sulfate 300 mg (Bombay Tablet Mfg Co)
300 mg x 6's (Bombay Tablet Mfg Co)$ 0.61
Quinsul 300 mg Tablet (Bombay Tablet Mfg Co)$ 0.10
Quinsul 300mg FC-TAB / 6 (Bombay Tablet Mfg Co)$ 0.61
QUINSUL 300MG TABLET 1 strip / 6 tablets each (Bombay Tablet Mfg Co)$ 0.61
QUINSUL film-coated tab 300 mg x 6's (Bombay Tablet Mfg Co)$ 0.61

References

  1. DailyMed. "QUININE SULFATE: DailyMed provides trustworthy information about marketed drugs in the United States. DailyMed is the official provider of FDA label information (package inserts).". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailyme... (accessed September 17, 2018).
  2. PubChem. "Quinine". https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/com... (accessed September 17, 2018).
  3. DrugBank. "Quinine". http://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00468 (accessed September 17, 2018).

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