Ricobid D Actions
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Actions of Ricobid D in details
The action of the drug on the human body is called Pharmacodynamics in Medical terminology. To produce its effect and to change the pathological process that is happening the body and to reduce the symptom or cure the disease, the medicine has to function in a specific way. The changes it does to the body at cellular level gives the desired result of treating a disease. Drugs act by stimulating or inhibiting a receptor or an enzyme or a protein most of the times. Medications are produced in such a way that the ingredients target the specific site and bring about chemical changes in the body that can stop or reverse the chemical reaction which is causing the disease.
In general, α1-adrenergic receptors mediate contraction and hypertrophic growth of smooth muscle cells. α1-receptors are 7-transmembrane domain receptors coupled to G proteins, Gq/11. Three α1-receptor subtypes, which share approximately 75% homology in their transmembrane domains, have been identified: α1A (chromosome 8), α1B (chromosome 5), and α1D (chromosome 20). Ricobid D appears to act similarly on all three receptor subtypes. All three receptor subtypes appear to be involved in maintaining vascular tone. The α1A-receptor maintains basal vascular tone while the α1B-receptor mediates the vasocontrictory effects of exogenous α1-agonists. Activation of the α1-receptor activates Gq-proteins, which results in intracellular stimulation of phospholipases C, A2, and D. This results in mobilization of Ca2+ from intracellular stores, activation of mitogen-activated kinase and PI3 kinase pathways and subsequent vasoconstriction. Ricobid D produces its local and systemic actions by acting on α1-adrenergic receptors peripheral vascular smooth muscle. Stimulation of the α1-adrenergic receptors results in contraction arteriolar smooth muscle in the periphery. Ricobid D decreases nasal congestion by acting on α1-adrenergic receptors in the arterioles of the nasal mucosa to produce constriction; this leads to decreased edema and increased drainage of the sinus cavities.
How should I take Ricobid D?
This section provides information on the proper use of a number of products that contain Ricobid D. It may not be specific to Ricobid D. Please read with care.
To use the nose drops:
To use the nose spray:
To use the nose jelly:
Use this medicine only as directed. Do not use more of it, do not use it more often, and do not use it for longer than 3 days without first checking with your doctor. To do so may make your runny or stuffy nose worse and may also increase the chance of side effects.
The dose of this medicine will be different for different patients. Follow your doctor's orders or the directions on the label. The following information includes only the average doses of this medicine. If your dose is different, do not change it unless your doctor tells you to do so.
The amount of medicine that you take depends on the strength of the medicine. Also, the number of doses you take each day, the time allowed between doses, and the length of time you take the medicine depend on the medical problem for which you are using the medicine.
If you miss a dose of this medicine, take it as soon as possible. However, if it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not double doses.
Store the medicine in a closed container at room temperature, away from heat, moisture, and direct light. Keep from freezing.
Keep out of the reach of children.
Do not keep outdated medicine or medicine no longer needed.
Ricobid D administration
Administration of drug is important to know because the drug absorption and action varies depending on the route and time of administration of the drug. A medicine is prescribed before meals or after meals or along with meals. The specific timing of the drug intake about food is to increase its absorption and thus its efficacy. Few work well when taken in empty stomach and few medications need to be taken 1 or 2 hrs after the meal. A drug can be in the form of a tablet, a capsule which is the oral route of administration and the same can be in IV form which is used in specific cases. Other forms of drug administration can be a suppository in anal route or an inhalation route.
Use Ricobid D eyedrops exactly as directed by your doctor, or follow the directions that accompany the package. If you do not understand these instructions, ask your doctor, pharmacist, or nurse to explain them to you.
Wash your hands before and after using the eyedrops.
If you wear contact lenses, remove them before applying Ricobid D ophthalmic. Ask your doctor if contact lenses can be reinserted after application of the medication. Ricobid D ophthalmic may contain a preservative (benzalkonium chloride), which may cause discoloration of contact lenses.
To apply the eyedrops:
Do not use Ricobid D ophthalmic more often or continuously for longer than 48 to 72 hours without consulting a doctor. Chronic use of this medication may damage the blood vessels (veins and arteries) in the eyes. Consult a doctor if your symptoms do not improve or appear to worsen.
Do not touch the dropper to any surface, including the eyes or hands. The dropper is sterile. If it becomes contaminated, it could cause an infection in the eye.
Do not use any eyedrop that is discolored or has particles in it.
Store Ricobid D ophthalmic at room temperature away from moisture and heat. Keep the bottle properly capped.
Ricobid D pharmacology
Pharmacokinetics of a drug can be defined as what body does to the drug after it is taken. The therapeutic result of the medicine depends upon the Pharmacokinetics of the drug. It deals with the time taken for the drug to be absorbed, metabolized, the process and chemical reactions involved in metabolism and about the excretion of the drug. All these factors are essential to deciding on the efficacy of the drug. Based on these pharmacokinetic principles, the ingredients, the Pharmaceutical company decides dose and route of administration. The concentration of the drug at the site of action which is proportional to therapeutic result inside the body depends on various pharmacokinetic reactions that occur in the body.
Mechanism Of Action
Ricobid D hydrochloride is an a-1 adrenergic receptor agonist.
Interaction of Ricobid D with a1-adrenergic receptors on vascular smooth muscle cells causes activation of the cells and results in vasoconstriction. Following Ricobid D hydrochloride intravenous administration, increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressures, mean arterial blood pressure, and total peripheral vascular resistance are observed. The onset of blood pressure increase following an intravenous bolus Ricobid D hydrochloride administration is rapid, typically within minutes. As blood pressure increases following intravenous administration, vagal activity also increases, resulting in reflex bradycardia.
Ricobid D has activity on most vascular beds, including renal, pulmonary, and splanchnic arteries.
Following an intravenous infusion of Ricobid D hydrochloride, the observed effective halflife was approximately 5 minutes. The steady-state volume of distribution of approximately 340 L suggests a high distribution into organs and peripheral tissues. The average total serum clearance is approximately 2100 mL/min. The observed Ricobid D plasma terminal elimination half-life was 2.5 hours.
Ricobid D is metabolized primarily by monoamine oxidase and sulfotransferase. After intravenous administration of radiolabeled Ricobid D, approximately 80% of the total dose was eliminated within first 12 h; and approximately 86% of the total dose was recovered in the urine within 48 h. The excreted unchanged parent drug was 16% of the total dose in the urine at 48 h post intravenous administration. There are two major metabolites, with approximately 57 and 8% of the total dose excreted as m-hydroxymandelic acid and sulfate conjugates, respectively. The metabolites are considered not pharmacologically active.
The evidence for the efficacy of Ricobid D is derived from studies of Ricobid D hydrochloride in the published literature. The literature support includes 16 studies evaluating the use of intravenous Ricobid D to treat hypotension during anesthesia. The 16 studies include 9 studies where Ricobid D was used in low-risk (ASA 1 and 2) pregnant women undergoing neuraxial anesthesia during Cesarean delivery, 6 studies in non-obstetric surgery under general anesthesia, and 1 study in non-obstetric surgery under combined general and neuraxial anesthesia. Ricobid D has been shown to raise systolic and mean blood pressure when administered either as a bolus dose or by continuous infusion following the development of hypotension during anesthesia.
ReviewsThe results of a survey conducted on ndrugs.com for Ricobid D are given in detail below. The results of the survey conducted are based on the impressions and views of the website users and consumers taking Ricobid D. We implore you to kindly base your medical condition or therapeutic choices on the result or test conducted by a physician or licensed medical practitioners.
Consumer reported administrationNo survey data has been collected yet
Information checked by Dr. Sachin Kumar, MD Pharmacology