Theophylline 23MG+ ETOPHYLLIN 77MG Overdose

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Consists of Etophylline, Theophylline

What happens if I overdose Theophylline (Theophylline 23MG+ ETOPHYLLIN 77MG)?

Contact 1-800-222-1222 (the American Association of Poison Control Centers), your local poison control center, or emergency room immediately. Symptoms may include agitation; chest pain; confusion; decreased urination; fast or irregular heartbeat; headache; increased thirst; irritability; loss of appetite; muscle pain or tenderness; nausea; nervousness; persistent increased urination; restlessness; seizures; severe or persistent diarrhea; stomach pain; tremors or twitching; vomiting, especially of blood.

Proper storage of Theophylline (Theophylline 23MG+ ETOPHYLLIN 77MG):

Store Theophylline (Theophylline 23MG+ ETOPHYLLIN 77MG) at room temperature, between 59 and 86 degrees F (15 and 30 degrees C), in a tightly closed container. Store away from heat, moisture, and light. Do not store in the bathroom. Do not refrigerate. Keep Theophylline (Theophylline 23MG+ ETOPHYLLIN 77MG) out of the reach of children and away from pets.

Overdose of Theophylline (Theophylline 23MG+ ETOPHYLLIN 77MG) in details

When a dose is taken in higher dose than the recommended doses, it is called Overdose. Overdose always needs a clinical supervision. Any medicine or drug when consumed in Overdose produces untoward side effects on one or various organs in the body. A medicine is excreted in the kidney or metabolized in the liver most of the times. This process goes without any hurdles when taken in normal dose, but when taken in an overdose, the body is not able to metabolize it or send it out properly which causes the effects of anoverdose.
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General

The chronicity and pattern of theophylline overdosage significantly influences clinical manifestations of toxicity, management and outcome. There are two common presentations: (1) acute overdose, i.e., ingestion of a single large excessive dose ( > 10 mg/kg) as occurs in the context of an attempted suicide or isolated medication error, and (2) chronic overdosage, i.e., ingestion of repeated doses that are excessive for the patient's rate of theophylline clearance. The most common causes of chronic theophylline overdosage include patient or care giver error in dosing, healthcare professional prescribing of an excessive dose or a normal dose in the presence of factors known to decrease the rate of theophylline clearance, and increasing the dose in response to an exacerbation of symptoms without first measuring the serum theophylline concentration to determine whether a dose increase is safe.

Severe toxicity from theophylline overdose is a relatively rare event. In one health maintenance organization, the frequency of hospital admissions for chronic overdosage of theophylline was about 1 per 1000 person-years exposure. In another study, among 6000 blood samples obtained for measurement of serum theophylline concentration, for any reason, from patients treated in an emergency department, 7% were in the 20-30 mcg/mL range and 3% were > 30 mcg/mL. Approximately two-thirds of the patients with serum theophylline concentrations in the 20-30 mcg/mL range had one or more manifestations of toxicity while > 90% of patients with serum theophylline concentrations > 30 mcg/mL were clinically intoxicated. Similarly, in other reports, serious toxicity from theophylline is seen principally at serum concentrations > 30 mcg/mL.

Several studies have described the clinical manifestations of theophylline overdose and attempted to determine the factors that predict life-threatening toxicity. In general, patients who experience an acute overdose are less likely to experience seizures than patients who have experienced a chronic overdosage, unless the peak serum theophylline concentration is > 100 mcg/mL. After a chronic overdosage, generalized seizures, life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias, and death may occur at serum theophylline concentrations > 30 mcg/mL. The severity of toxicity after chronic overdosage is more strongly correlated with the patient's age than the peak serum theophylline concentration; patients > 60 years are at the greatest risk for severe toxicity and mortality after a chronic overdosage. Pre-existing or concurrent disease may also significantly increase the susceptibility of a patient to a particular toxic manifestation, e.g., patients with neurologic disorders have an increased risk of seizures and patients with cardiac disease have an increased risk of cardiac arrhythmias for a given serum theophylline concentration compared to patients without the underlying disease.

The frequency of various reported manifestations of theophylline overdose according to the mode of overdose are listed in Table IV.

Other manifestations of theophylline toxicity include increases in serum calcium, creatine kinase, myoglobin and leukocyte count, decreases in serum phosphate and magnesium, acute myocardial infarction, and urinary retention in men with obstructive uropathy. Seizures associated with serum theophylline concentrations > 30 mcg/mL are often resistant to anticonvulsant therapy and may result in irreversible brain injury if not rapidly controlled. Death from theophylline toxicity is most often secondary to cardiorespiratory arrest and/or hypoxic encephalopathy following prolonged generalized seizures or intractable cardiac arrhythmias causing hemodynamic compromise.

Overdose Management

General Recommendations for Patients with Symptoms of Theophylline Overdose or Serum Theophylline Concentrations > 30 mcg/mL (Note: Serum theophylline concentrations may continue to increase after presentation of the patient for medical care.)

  1. While simultaneously instituting treatment, contact a regional poison center to obtain updated information and advice on individualizing the recommendations that follow.
  2. Institute supportive care, including establishment of intravenous access, maintenance of the airway, and electrocardiographic monitorin
  3. Treatment of seizures. Because of the high morbidity and mortality associated with theophylline-induced seizures, treatment should be rapid and aggressive. Anticonvulsant therapy should be initiated with an intravenous benzodiazepine, e.g., diazepam, in increments of 0.1-0.2 mg/kg every 1-3 minutes until seizures are terminated. Repetitive seizures should be treated with a loading dose of phenobarbital (20 mg/kg infused over 30-60 minutes). Case reports of theophylline overdose in humans and animal studies suggest that phenytoin is ineffective in terminating theophylline-induced seizures. The doses of benzodiazepines and phenobarbital required to terminate theophylline-induced seizures are close to the doses that may cause severe respiratory depression or respiratory arrest; the healthcare professional should therefore be prepared to provide assisted ventilation. Elderly patients and patients with COPD may be more susceptible to the respiratory depressant effects of anticonvulsants. Barbiturate-induced coma or administration of general anesthesia may be required to terminate repetitive seizures or status epilepticus. General anesthesia should be used with caution in patients with theophylline overdose because fluorinated volatile anesthetics may sensitize the myocardium to endogenous catecholamines released by theophylline. Enflurane appears less likely to be associated with this effect than halothane and may, therefore, be safer. Neuromuscular blocking agents alone should not be used to terminate seizures since they abolish the musculoskeletal manifestations without terminating seizure activity in the brain.
  4. Anticipate need for anticonvulsants. In patients with theophylline overdose who are at high risk for theophylline-induced seizures, e.g., patients with acute overdoses and serum theophylline concentrations > 100 mcg/mL or chronic overdosage in patients > 60 years of age with serum theophylline concentrations > 30 mcg/mL, the need for anticonvulsant therapy should be anticipated. A benzodiazepine such as diazepam should be drawn into a syringe and kept at the patient's bedside and medical personnel qualified to treat seizures should be immediately available. In selected patients at high risk for theophylline-induced seizures, consideration should be given to the administration of prophylactic anticonvulsant therapy. Situations where prophylactic anticonvulsant therapy should be considered in high risk patients include anticipated delays in instituting methods for extracorporeal removal of theophylline (e.g., transfer of a high risk patient from one health care facility to another for extracorporeal removal) and clinical circumstances that significantly interfere with efforts to enhance theophylline clearance (e.g., a neonate where dialysis may not be technically feasible or a patient with vomiting unresponsive to antiemetics who is unable to tolerate multiple-dose oral activated charcoal). In animal studies, prophylactic administration of phenobarbital, but not phenytoin, has been shown to delay the onset of theophylline-induced generalized seizures and to increase the dose of theophylline required to induce seizures (i.e., markedly increases the LD). Although there are no controlled studies in humans, a loading dose of intravenous phenobarbital (20 mg/kg infused over 60 minutes) may delay or prevent life-threatening seizures in high risk patients while efforts to enhance theophylline clearance are continued. Phenobarbital may cause respiratory depression, particularly in elderly patients and patients with COPD.
  5. Treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. Sinus tachycardia and simple ventricular premature beats are not harbingers of life-threatening arrhythmias, they do not require treatment in the absence of hemodynamic compromise, and they resolve with declining serum theophylline concentrations. Other arrhythmias, especially those associated with hemodynamic compromise, should be treated with antiarrhythmic therapy appropriate for the type of arrhythmia.
  6. Gastrointestinal decontamination.

    Oral activated charcoal (0.5 g/kg up to 20 g and repeat at least once 1-2 hours after the first dose) is extremely effective in blocking the absorption of theophylline throughout the gastrointestinal tract, even when administered several hours after ingestion. If the patient is vomiting, the charcoal should be administered through a nasogastric tube or after administration of an antiemetic. Phenothiazine antiemetics such as prochlorperazine or perphenazine should be avoided since they can lower the seizure threshold and frequently cause dystonic reactions. A single dose of sorbitol may be used to promote stooling to facilitate removal of theophylline bound to charcoal from the gastrointestinal tract. Sorbitol, however, should be dosed with caution since it is a potent purgative which can cause profound fluid and electrolyte abnormalities, particularly after multiple doses. Commercially available fixed combinations of liquid charcoal and sorbitol should be avoided in young children and after the first dose in adolescents and adults since they do not allow for individualization of charcoal and sorbitol dosing. Ipecac syrup should be avoided in theophylline overdoses. Although ipecac induces emesis, it does not reduce the absorption of theophylline unless administered within 5 minutes of ingestion and even then is less effective than oral activated charcoal. Moreover, ipecac induced emesis may persist for several hours after a single dose and significantly decrease the retention and the effectiveness of oral activated charcoal.

  7. Serum theophylline concentration monitoring. The serum theophylline concentration should be measured immediately upon presentation, 2-4 hours later, and then at sufficient intervals, e.g., every 4 hours, to guide treatment decisions and to assess the effectiveness of therapy. Serum theophylline concentrations may continue to increase after presentation of the patient for medical care as a result of continued absorption of theophylline from the gastrointestinal tract. Serial monitoring of serum theophylline concentrations should be continued until it is clear that the concentration is no longer rising and has returned to non-toxic levels.
  8. General monitoring procedures. Electrocardiographic monitoring should be initiated on presentation and continued until the serum theophylline level has returned to a non-toxic level. Serum electrolytes and glucose should be measured on presentation and at appropriate intervals indicated by clinical circumstances. Fluid and electrolyte abnormalities should be promptly corrected. Monitoring and treatment should be continued until the serum concentration decreases below 20 mcg/mL.
  9. Enhance clearance of theophylline. Multiple-dose oral activated charcoal (e.g., 0.5 g/kg up to 20 g, every two hours) increases the clearance of theophylline at least twofold by adsorption of theophylline secreted into gastrointestinal fluids. Charcoal must be retained in, and pass through, the gastrointestinal tract to be effective; emesis should therefore be controlled by administration of appropriate antiemetics. Alternatively, the charcoal can be administered continuously through a nasogastric tube in conjunction with appropriate antiemetics. A single dose of sorbitol may be administered with the activated charcoal to promote stooling to facilitate clearance of the adsorbed theophylline from the gastrointestinal tract. Sorbitol alone does not enhance clearance of theophylline and should be dosed with caution to prevent excessive stooling which can result in severe fluid and electrolyte imbalances. Commercially available fixed combinations of liquid charcoal and sorbitol should be avoided in young children and after the first dose in adolescents and adults since they do not allow for individualization of charcoal and sorbitol dosing. In patients with intractable vomiting, extracorporeal methods of theophylline removal should be instituted.

Specific Recommendations

Acute Overdose
  1. Serum Concentration > 20 < 30 mcg/mL
    1. Administer a single dose of oral activated charcoal.
    2. Monitor the patient and obtain a serum theophylline concentration in 2-4 hours to insure that the concentration is not increasing.
  2. Serum Concentration > 30 < 100 mcg/mL
    1. Administer multiple dose oral activated charcoal and measures to control emesis.
    2. Monitor the patient and obtain serial theophylline concentrations every 2-4 hours to gauge the effectiveness of therapy and to guide further treatment decisions.
    3. Institute extracorporeal removal if emesis, seizures, or cardiac arrhythmias cannot be adequately controlled.
  3. Serum Concentration > 100 mcg/mL
    1. Consider prophylactic anticonvulsant therapy.
    2. Administer multiple-dose oral activated charcoal and measures to control emesis.
    3. Consider extracorporeal removal, even if the patient has not experienced a seizure.
    4. Monitor the patient and obtain serial theophylline concentrations every 2-4 hours to gauge the effectiveness of therapy and to guide further treatment decisions.
Chronic Overdosage
  1. Serum Concentration > 20 < 30 mcg/mL (with manifestations of theophylline toxicity)
    1. Administer a single dose of oral activated charcoal.
    2. Monitor the patient and obtain a serum theophylline concentration in 2-4 hours to insure that the concentration is not increasing.
  2. Serum Concentration > 30 mcg/mL in patients < 60 years of age
    1. Administer multiple-dose oral activated charcoal and measures to control emesis.
    2. Monitor the patient and obtain serial theophylline concentrations every 2-4 hours to gauge the effectiveness of therapy and to guide further treatment decisions.
    3. Institute extracorporeal removal if emesis, seizures, or cardiac arrhythmias cannot be adequately controlled.
  3. Serum Concentration > 30 mcg/mL in patients

    What should I avoid while taking Theophylline (Theophylline 23MG+ ETOPHYLLIN 77MG)?

    Avoid eating foods that are high in fat within 1 hour before or after taking theophylline.

    This medication may impair your thinking or reactions. Be careful if you drive or do anything that requires you to be alert.

    Theophylline (Theophylline 23MG+ ETOPHYLLIN 77MG) warnings

    Warnings are a mix of Precautions. Contraindications and interactions and serious harmful effects associated with the medicine intake. A diabetic or Hypertensive patient need to be warned about few drug interactions. A known hypersensitivity patient needs to be careful about the reactions or anaphylactic shock. A pregnant woman or a breastfeeding woman should be warned of certain medications. A Hepatitis [liver disease] patient or a cardiac patient should avoid few drugs.
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    Concurrent Illness

    Theophylline should be used with extreme caution in patients with the following clinical conditions due to the increased risk of exacerbation of the concurrent condition:

    Active peptic ulcer disease

    Seizure disorders

    Cardiac arrhythmias (not including bradyarrhythmias)

    Conditions That Reduce Theophylline Clearance

    There are several readily identifiable causes of reduced theophylline clearance. If the total daily dose is not appropriately reduced in the presence of these risk factors, severe and potentially fatal theophylline toxicity can occur. Careful consideration must be given to the benefits and risks of theophylline use and the need for more intensive monitoring of serum theophylline concentrations in patients with the following risk factors:

    Age

    Neonates (term and premature)

    Children < 1 year

    Elderly ( > 60 years)

    Concurrent Diseases

    Acute pulmonary edema

    Congestive heart failure

    Cor pulmonale

    Fever: ε102°F for 24 hours or more; or lesser temperature elevations for longer periods

    Hypothyroidism

    Liver disease; cirrhosis, acute hepatitis

    Reduced renal function in infants < 3 months of age

    Sepsis with multi-organ failure

    Shock

    Cessation of Smoking

    Drug Interactions

    Adding a drug that inhibits theophylline metabolism (e.g., cimetidine, erythromycin, tacrine)or stopping a concurrently administered drug that enhances theophylline metabolism (e.g., carbamazepine, rifampin).

    When Signs or Symptoms of Theophylline Toxicity Are Present

    Whenever a patient receiving theophylline develops nausea or vomiting, particularly repetitive vomiting, or other signs or symptoms consistent with theophylline toxicity (even if another cause may be suspected), additional doses of theophylline should be withheld and a serum theophylline concentration measured immediately. Patients should be instructed not to continue any dosage that causes adverse effects and to withhold subsequent doses until the symptoms have resolved, at which time the clinician may instruct the patient to resume the drug at a lower dosage.

    Dosage Increases

    Increases in the dose of theophylline should not be made in response to an acute exacerbation of symptoms of chronic lung disease since theophylline provides little added benefit to inhaled beta -selective agonists and systemically administered corticosteroids in this circumstance and increases the risk of adverse effects. A peak steady-state serum theophylline concentration should be measured before increasing the dose in response to persistent chronic symptoms to ascertain whether an increase in dose is safe. Before increasing the theophylline dose on the basis of a low serum concentration, the clinician should consider whether the blood sample was obtained at an appropriate time in relationship to the dose and whether the patient has adhered to the prescribed regimen.

    As the rate of theophylline clearance may be dose-dependent (i.e., steady-state serum concentrations may increase disproportionately to the increase in dose), an increase in dose based upon a sub-therapeutic serum concentration measurement should be conservative. In general, limiting dose increases to about 25%of the previous total daily dose will reduce the risk of unintended excessive increases in serum theophylline concentration.

    What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking Theophylline (Theophylline 23MG+ ETOPHYLLIN 77MG)?

    Some medical conditions may interact with Theophylline (Theophylline 23MG+ ETOPHYLLIN 77MG). Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you have any medical conditions, especially if any of the following apply to you:

    • if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding
    • if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement
    • if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances
    • if you have a history of heart problems (eg, congestive heart failure, cor pulmonale), an irregular heartbeat, liver problems (eg, cirrhosis, hepatitis), viral infection, thyroid problems, increased acid levels in the body, brain or nerve problems, or seizures (eg, epilepsy)
    • if you are in shock or have a fever, an ulcer, a severe infection, cystic fibrosis, or fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema)
    • if you smoke, are stopping or starting smoking, or are exposed to the smoke from cigarettes or marijuana
    • if you are in the last 3 months of pregnancy

    Some MEDICINES MAY INTERACT with Theophylline (Theophylline 23MG+ ETOPHYLLIN 77MG). Tell your health care provider if you are taking any other medicines, especially any of the following:

    • Aminoglutethimide, barbiturates (eg, phenobarbital), carbamazepine, hydantoins (eg, phenytoin), isoproterenol, moricizine, rifampin, St. John's wort, or sulfinpyrazone because they may decrease Theophylline (Theophylline 23MG+ ETOPHYLLIN 77MG)'s effectiveness
    • Allopurinol, beta-blockers (eg, propranolol), cimetidine, disulfiram, enoxacin, estrogen, febuxostat, fluvoxamine, interferon alpha, macrolide antibiotics (eg, clarithromycin, erythromycin), methotrexate, mexiletine, oral contraceptives (birth control pills), pentoxifylline, propafenone, quinolone antibiotics (eg, ciprofloxacin), tacrine, thiabendazole, ticlopidine, troleandomycin, verapamil, viloxazine, or zileuton because they may increase the risk of Theophylline (Theophylline 23MG+ ETOPHYLLIN 77MG)'s side effects
    • Ephedrine because the risk of side effects, such as nausea, nervousness, and trouble sleeping, may be increased
    • Halothane because the risk of side effects such as irregular heartbeat may be increased
    • Ketamine because the risk of seizures may be increased
    • Adenosine, benzodiazepines (eg, diazepam, flurazepam, lorazepam, midazolam), dipyridamole IV, lithium, or nondepolarizing muscle relaxants (eg, pancuronium) because their effectiveness may be decreased by Theophylline (Theophylline 23MG+ ETOPHYLLIN 77MG)

    This may not be a complete list of all interactions that may occur. Ask your health care provider if Theophylline (Theophylline 23MG+ ETOPHYLLIN 77MG) may interact with other medicines that you take. Check with your health care provider before you start, stop, or change the dose of any medicine.

    Theophylline (Theophylline 23MG+ ETOPHYLLIN 77MG) precautions

    Certain people who are very sick or very old or who are sensitive show an exacerbation of side effect of the drug which can turn dangerous at times. So, it is very important to remember the precautions while taking the medicine. Pregnancy and Breastfeeding are also special categories wherein extra care or precaution is needed when taking a drug. Few patients may have a hypersensitivity reaction to few medications, and that can be life-threatening rarely. Penicillin hypersensitivity is one example. Diarrhea, rashes are few other symptoms which need a watch. A patient with other co-existing diseases like liver disease, heart disease, kidney disease should take special precautions.
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    General

    Careful consideration of the various interacting drugs and physiologic conditions that can alter theophylline clearance and require dosage adjustment should occur prior to initiation of theophylline therapy, prior to increases in theophylline dose, and during follow up. The dose of theophylline selected for initiation of therapy should be low and, if tolerated, increased slowly over a period of a week or longer with the final dose guided by monitoring serum theophylline concentrations and the patient's clinical response.

    Monitoring Serum Theophylline Concentrations

    Serum theophylline concentration measurements are readily available and should be used to determine whether the dosage is appropriate. Specifically, the serum theophylline concentration should be measured as follows:

    1. When initiating therapy to guide final dosage adjustment after titration.
    2. Before making a dose increase to determine whether the serum concentration is sub-therapeutic in a patient who continues to be symptomatic.
    3. Whenever signs or symptoms of theophylline toxicity are present.
    4. Whenever there is a new illness, worsening of a chronic illness or a change in the patient's treatment regimen that may alter theophylline clearance (e.g., fever > 102°F sustained for ε24 hours, hepatitis, or drugs listed in Table II are added or discontinued).

    To guide a dose increase, the blood sample should be obtained at the time of the expected peak serum theophylline concentration: 1-2 hours after a dose at steady-state. For most patients, steady-state will be reached after 3 days of dosing when no doses have been missed, no extra doses have been added, and none of the doses has been taken at unequal intervals. A trough concentration (i.e., at the end of the dosing interval) provides no additional useful information and may lead to an inappropriate dose increase since the peak serum theophylline concentration can be two or more times greater than the trough concentration with an immediate-release formulation. If the serum sample is drawn more than two hours after the dose, the results must be interpreted with caution since the concentration may not be reflective of the peak concentration. In contrast, when signs or symptoms of theophylline toxicity are present, the serum sample should be obtained as soon as possible, analyzed immediately, and the result reported to the clinician without delay. In patients in whom decreased serum protein binding is suspected (e.g., cirrhosis, women during the third trimester of pregnancy), the concentration of unbound theophylline should be measured and the dosage adjusted to achieve an unbound concentration of 6-12 mcg/mL. Saliva concentrations of theophylline cannot be used reliably to adjust dosage without special techniques.

    Effects on Laboratory Tests

    As a result of its pharmacological effects, theophylline at serum concentrations within the 10-20 mcg/mL range modestly increases plasma glucose (from a mean of 88 mg%to 98 mg%), uric acid (from a mean of 4 mg/dL to 6 mg/dL), free fatty acids (from a mean of 451 mεq/L to 800 mεq/L), total cholesterol (from a mean of 140 vs 160 mg/dL), HDL (from a mean of 36 to 50 mg/dL), HDL/LDL ratio (from a mean of 0.5 to 0.7), and urinary free cortisol excretion (from a mean of 44 to 63 mcg/24 hr). Theophylline at serum concentrations within the 10-20 mcg/mL range may also transiently decrease serum concentrations of triiodothyronine (144 before, 131 after one week and 142 ng/dL after 4 weeks of theophylline). The clinical importance of these changes should be weighed against the potential therapeutic benefit of theophylline in individual patients.

    Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, and Impairment of Fertility

    Long-term carcinogenicity studies have been carried out in mice (oral doses 30-150 mg/kg)and rats (oral doses 5-75 mg/kg). Results are pending.

    Theophylline has been studied in Ames Salmonella, in vivo and in vitro cytogenetics, micronucleus and Chinese hamster ovary test systems and has not been shown to be genotoxic. In a 14 week continuous breeding study, theophylline, administered to mating pairs of B6C3F mice at oral doses of 120, 270 and 500 mg/kg (approximately 1.0-3.0 times the human dose on a mg/m basis. At a dose of 220 mg/kg, embryotoxicity was observed in rats in the absence of maternal toxicity.

    Nursing Mothers

    Theophylline is excreted into breast milk and may cause irritability or other signs of mild toxicity in nursing human infants. The concentration of theophylline in breast milk is about equivalent to the maternal serum concentration. An infant ingesting a liter of breast milk containing 10-20 mcg/mL of theophylline per day is likely to receive 10-20 mg of theophylline per day. Serious adverse effects in the infant are unlikely unless the mother has toxic serum theophylline concentrations.

    Pediatric Use

    Theophylline is safe and effective for the approved indications in pediatric patients. The maintenance dose of theophylline must be selected with caution in pediatric patients since the rate of theophylline clearance is highly variable across the age range of neonates to adolescents. Due to the immaturity of theophylline metabolic pathways in infants under the age of one year, particular attention to dosage selection and frequent monitoring of serum theophylline concentrations are required when theophylline is prescribed to pediatric patients in this age group.

    Geriatric Use

    Elderly patients are at significantly greater risk of experiencing serious toxicity from theophylline than younger patients due to pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes associated with aging. Theophylline clearance is reduced in patients greater than 60 years of age, resulting in increased serum theophylline concentrations in response to a given theophylline dose. Protein binding may be decreased in the elderly resulting in a larger proportion of the total serum theophylline concentration in the pharmacologically active unbound form. Elderly patients also appear to be more sensitive to the toxic effects of theophylline after chronic overdosage than younger patients. For these reasons, the maximum daily dose of theophylline in patients greater than 60 years of age ordinarily should not exceed 400 mg/day unless the patient continues to be symptomatic and the peak steady-state serum theophylline concentration is < 10 mcg/mL. Theophylline doses greater than 400 mg/d should be prescribed with caution in elderly patients.

    What happens if I miss a dose of Theophylline (Theophylline 23MG+ ETOPHYLLIN 77MG)?

    When you miss a dose, you should take it as soon as you remember, but you should take care that it should be well spaced from the next dose. You should not take an extra dose at the time of the second dose as it will become a double dose. The double dose can give unwanted side effects, so be careful. In chronic conditions or when you have a serious health issue, if you miss a dose, you should inform your health care provider and ask his suggestion.

    Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. Skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next scheduled dose. Do not take extra medicine to make up the missed dose.



    References

    1. DailyMed. "THEOPHYLLINE: DailyMed provides trustworthy information about marketed drugs in the United States. DailyMed is the official provider of FDA label information (package inserts).". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailyme... (accessed September 17, 2018).
    2. DrugBank. "theophylline". http://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00277 (accessed September 17, 2018).
    3. MeSH. "Purinergic P1 Receptor Antagonists". https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/68... (accessed September 17, 2018).

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    Information checked by Dr. Sachin Kumar, MD Pharmacology

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