Toprol is used alone or together with other medicines to treat high blood pressure (hypertension). High blood pressure adds to the workload of the heart and arteries. If it continues for a long time, the heart and arteries may not function properly. This can damage the blood vessels of the brain, heart, and kidneys, resulting in a stroke, heart failure, or kidney failure. A lower blood pressure can reduce the risk of strokes and heart attacks.
Toprol is also used to treat severe chest pain (angina) and lowers the risk of repeated heart attacks. It is given to people who have already had a heart attack. In addition, Toprol is used to treat patients with heart failure.
Toprol is a beta-blocker. It works by affecting the response to nerve impulses in certain parts of the body, like the heart. As a result, the heart beats slower and decreases the blood pressure. When the blood pressure is lowered, the amount of blood and oxygen is increased to the heart.
Toprol is available only with your doctor's prescription.
An indication is a term used for the list of condition or symptom or illness for which the medicine is prescribed or used by the patient. For example, acetaminophen or paracetamol is used for fever by the patient, or the doctor prescribes it for a headache or body pains. Now fever, headache and body pains are the indications of paracetamol. A patient should be aware of the indications of medications used for common conditions because they can be taken over the counter in the pharmacy meaning without prescription by the Physician.
Toprol is indicated for the treatment of hypertension, to lower blood pressure. Lowering blood pressure lowers the risk of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events, primarily strokes and myocardial infarctions. These benefits have been seen in controlled trials of antihypertensive drugs from a wide variety of pharmacologic classes including Toprol.
Control of high blood pressure should be part of comprehensive cardiovascular risk management, including, as appropriate, lipid control, diabetes management, antithrombotic therapy, smoking cessation, exercise, and limited sodium intake. Many patients will require more than 1 drug to achieve blood pressure goals. For specific advice on goals and management, see published guidelines, such as those of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program’s Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC).
Numerous antihypertensive drugs, from a variety of pharmacologic classes and with different mechanisms of action, have been shown in randomized controlled trials to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and it can be concluded that it is blood pressure reduction, and not some other pharmacologic property of the drugs, that is largely responsible for those benefits. The largest and most consistent cardiovascular outcome benefit has been a reduction in the risk of stroke, but reductions in myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality also have been seen regularly.
Elevated systolic or diastolic pressure causes increased cardiovascular risk, and the absolute risk increase per mmHg is greater at higher blood pressures, so that even modest reductions of severe hypertension can provide substantial benefit. Relative risk reduction from blood pressure reduction is similar across populations with varying absolute risk, so the absolute benefit is greater in patients who are at higher risk independent of their hypertension (for example, patients with diabetes or hyperlipidemia), and such patients would be expected to benefit from more aggressive treatment to a lower blood pressure goal.
Some antihypertensive drugs have smaller blood pressure effects (as monotherapy) in black patients, and many antihypertensive drugs have additional approved indications and effects (e.g., on angina, heart failure, or diabetic kidney disease). These considerations may guide selection of therapy.
Toprol may be administered with other antihypertensive agents.
Toprol is indicated in the long-term treatment of angina pectoris, to reduce angina attacks and to improve exercise tolerance.
Toprol is indicated for the treatment of stable, symptomatic (NYHA Class II or III) heart failure of ischemic, hypertensive, or cardiomyopathic origin. It was studied in patients already receiving ACE inhibitors, diuretics, and, in the majority of cases, digitalis. In this population, Toprol decreased the rate of mortality plus hospitalization, largely through a reduction in cardiovascular mortality and hospitalizations for heart failure.
How should I use Toprol?
Use Toprol tartrate as directed by your doctor. Check the label on the medicine for exact dosing instructions.
Toprol tartrate is usually given as an injection at your doctor's office, hospital, or clinic. If you will be using Toprol tartrate at home, a health care provider will teach you how to use it. Be sure you understand how to use Toprol tartrate. Follow the procedures you are taught when you use a dose. Contact your health care provider if you have any questions.
Do not use Toprol tartrate if it contains particles, is cloudy or discolored, or if the vial is cracked or damaged.
Keep this product, as well as syringes and needles, out of the reach of children and pets. Do not reuse needles, syringes, or other materials. Ask your health care provider how to dispose of these materials after use. Follow all local rules for disposal.
If you miss a dose of Toprol tartrate, use it as soon as possible. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not use 2 doses at once.
Ask your health care provider any questions you may have about how to use Toprol tartrate.
Uses of Toprol in details
There are specific as well as general uses of a drug or medicine. A medicine can be used to prevent a disease, treat a disease over a period or cure a disease. It can also be used to treat the particular symptom of the disease. The drug use depends on the form the patient takes it. It may be more useful in injection form or sometimes in tablet form. The drug can be used for a single troubling symptom or a life-threatening condition. While some medications can be stopped after few days, some drugs need to be continued for prolonged period to get the benefit from it.
Use: Labeled Indications
Angina: Long-term treatment of angina pectoris.
Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (ER oral formulation): Treatment of stable, symptomatic (NYHA class II or III) heart failure of ischemic, hypertensive, or cardiomyopathic origin to reduce the rate of mortality plus hospitalization in patients already receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, diuretics, and/or digoxin.
Hypertension: Management of hypertension. Note: Beta-blockers are not recommended as first-line therapy (ACC/AHA [Whelton 2017]).
Myocardial infarction: Treatment of hemodynamically stable acute myocardial infarction to reduce cardiovascular mortality (injection to be used in combination with Toprol oral maintenance therapy).
Off Label Uses
Based on the 2014 American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology/Heart Rhythm Society (AHA/ACC/HRS) guideline for the management of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), the use of beta-blockers, including Toprol, for ventricular rate control in patients with paroxysmal, persistent, or permanent AF is effective and recommended.
Atrial fibrillation prevention after cardiac surgery
Based on the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association (ACCF/AHA) guideline for coronary artery bypass graft surgery, beta-blockers are recommended to help prevent postoperative atrial fibrillation.
Based on the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association (ACCF/AHA) guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, a beta blocker (eg, Toprol) is an effective and recommended agent for the treatment of symptoms (eg, angina, dyspnea) in patients with obstructive or nonobstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
Marfan syndrome with aortic aneurysm
Based on the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association/American Association for Thoracic Surgery (ACCF/AHA/AATS) guideline for the diagnosis and management of patients with thoracic aortic disease, a beta blocker (eg, Toprol) is an effective and recommended agent to reduce the rate of aortic dilatation in patients with Marfan syndrome and aortic aneurysm, unless a contraindication exists.
Data from small, randomized, active-controlled trials support the use of Toprol for prevention of migraines.
Based on evidence-based guidelines for pharmacologic treatment for episodic migraine prevention in adults from the American Academy of Neurology and the American Headache Society, Toprol is effective for migraine prevention in adults.
Based on the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association/Heart Rhythm Society (ACC/AHA/HRS) guidelines for the management of adult patients with supraventricular tachycardia, the use of an oral or intravenous beta-blocker, including Toprol, is effective and recommended for a variety of symptomatic supraventricular tachycardias (atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia [AVNRT], atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia [AVRT], focal atrial tachycardia [AT], and multifocal atrial tachycardia [MAT]). In patients without pre-excitation, intravenous Toprol is recommended for acute treatment in hemodynamically stable patients and oral Toprol is recommended for ongoing management of symptomatic supraventricular tachycardias in patients who are not candidates for, or prefer not to undergo, catheter ablation.
Intravenous or oral Toprol may be useful for rate control in the acute treatment or ongoing management of hemodynamically stable patients with atrial flutter.
Based on the American Thyroid Association guidelines for diagnosis and management of hyperthyroidism and other causes of thyrotoxicosis, beta-blockers, including Toprol, are effective and recommended in the treatment of symptomatic thyrotoxicosis. Beta-blockers should also be considered in asymptomatic patients who are at increased risk of complications due to worsening hyperthyroidism.
Based on the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology/Heart Rhythm Society (AHA/ACC/HRS) guideline for management of patients with ventricular arrhythmias and prevention of sudden cardiac death, beta-blockers are effective for control of ventricular arrhythmias and ventricular premature beats.
Toprol is a cardioselective β1-adrenergic blocking agent used for acute myocardial infarction (MI), heart failure, angina pectoris and mild to moderate hypertension. It may also be used for supraventricular and tachyarrhythmias and prophylaxis for migraine headaches. Toprol is structurally similar to bisoprolol, acebutolol and atenolol in that it has two substituents in the para position of the benzene ring. The β1-selectivity of these agents is thought to be due in part to the large substituents in the para position. At low doses, Toprol selectively blocks cardiac β1-adrenergic receptors with little activity against β2-adrenergic receptors of the lungs and vascular smooth muscle. Receptor selectivity decreases with higher doses. Unlike propranolol and pindolol, Toprol does not exhibit membrane-stabilizing or intrinsic sympathomimetic activity. Membrane-stabilizing effects are only observed at doses much higher than those needed for β-adrenergic blocking activity. Toprol possesses a single chiral centre and is administered as a racemic mixture.
Generic name: Toprol 25mg
Dosage form: tablet, extended release
The information at Drugs.com is not a substitute for medical advice. Always consult your doctor or pharmacist.
Toprol is an extended-release tablet intended for once daily administration. For treatment of hypertension and angina, when switching from immediate-release Toprol to Toprol, use the same total daily dose of Toprol. Individualize the dosage of Toprol. Titration may be needed in some patients.
Toprol tablets are scored and can be divided; however, do not crush or chew the whole or half tablet.
Adults: The usual initial dosage is 25 to 100 mg daily in a single dose. The dosage may be increased at weekly (or longer) intervals until optimum blood pressure reduction is achieved. In general, the maximum effect of any given dosage level will be apparent after 1 week of therapy. Dosages above 400 mg per day have not been studied.
Pediatric Hypertensive Patients ≥ 6 Years of age: A pediatric clinical hypertension study in patients 6 to 16 years of age did not meet its primary endpoint (dose response for reduction in SBP); however, some other endpoints demonstrated effectiveness. If selected for treatment, the recommended starting dose of Toprol is 1 mg/kg once daily, but the maximum initial dose should not exceed 50 mg once daily. Dosage should be adjusted according to blood pressure response. Doses above 2 mg/kg (or in excess of 200 mg) once daily have not been studied in pediatric patients.
Toprol is not recommended in pediatric patients < 6 years of age.
Individualize the dosage of Toprol. The usual initial dosage is 100 mg daily, given in a single dose. Gradually increase the dosage at weekly intervals until optimum clinical response has been obtained or there is a pronounced slowing of the heart rate. Dosages above 400 mg per day have not been studied. If treatment is to be discontinued, reduce the dosage gradually over a period of 1 - 2 weeks.
Dosage must be individualized and closely monitored during up-titration. Prior to initiation of Toprol, stabilize the dose of other heart failure drug therapy. The recommended starting dose of Toprol is 25 mg once daily for two weeks in patients with NYHA Class II heart failure and 12.5 mg once daily in patients with more severe heart failure. Double the dose every two weeks to the highest dosage level tolerated by the patient or up to 200 mg of Toprol. Initial difficulty with titration should not preclude later attempts to introduce Toprol. If patients experience symptomatic bradycardia, reduce the dose of Toprol. If transient worsening of heart failure occurs, consider treating with increased doses of diuretics, lowering the dose of Toprol or temporarily discontinuing it. The dose of Toprol should not be increased until symptoms of worsening heart failure have been stabilized.
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Toprol extended-release tablets
Toprol (Advanced Reading)
Other brands: Toprol Tartrate, Toprol ER, Lopressor
Toprol is a CYP2D6 substrate. Drugs that inhibit CYP2D6 can have an effect on the plasma concentration of Toprol. Examples of drugs that inhibit CYP2D6 are quinidine, terbinafine, paroxetine, fluoxetine, sertraline, celecoxib, propafenon and diphenhydramine. When treatment with these drugs are initiated, the dose of Toprol might have to be reduced for patients treated with Toprol.
The Following Combinations with Toprol Should be Avoided:Barbituric Acid Derivatives: Barbiturates (investigated for pentobarbital) induce the metabolism of Toprol by enzyme induction.
Propafenone: Upon administration of propafenone to 4 patients on Toprol therapy, the plasma concentrations of Toprol increased by 2-5 fold and 2 patients experienced side effects typical of Toprol. The interaction was confirmed in 8 healthy volunteers. The interaction is probably explained by the fact that propafenone, similarly to quinidine, inhibits the metabolism of Toprol via cytochrome P450 2D6. The combination is probably difficult to handle since propafenone also has beta-receptor blocking properties.
Verapamil: In combination with beta-receptor blocking drugs (described for atenolol, propranolol and pindolol), verapamil may cause bradycardia and fall in blood pressure.
Verapamil and beta-blockers have additive inhibitory effects on AV-conduction and sinusnode function.
The Following Combinations with Toprol may require Modified Drug
Amiodarone: A case report suggests that patients treated with amiodarone may developed pronounced sinus bradycardia when treated simultaneously with Toprol. Amiodarone has extremely long half-life (around 50 days), which implies that interactions can occur for a long time after withdrawal of the drug.
Antiarrhythmics, Class I: Class I antiarrhythmics and beta-receptor blocking drugs have additive negative inotropic effects which may result in serious haemodynamic side effects in patients with impaired left ventricular function. The combination should also be avoided in "sick sinus syndrome" and pathological AV-conduction. The interaction is best documented for disopyramide.
Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory/Antirheumatic Drugs (NSAIDs): NSAID-antiphlogistics have been shown to counteract the antihypertensive effect of beta-receptor blocking drugs. Primarily, indomethacin has been studied. This interaction probably does not occur with sulindac. A negative interaction study on diclofenac has been performed.
Diphenhydramine: Diphenhydramine decreases (2.5 times) clearance of Toprol to alpha-hydroximetoprolol via CYP2D6 in fast hydroxylating persons. The effects of Toprol are enhanced. Diphenhydramine may probably inhibit the metabolism of other CYP2D6 substrates.
Digitalis Glycosides: Digitalis glycosides in association with beta-blockers, may increase AV conduction time and may induce bradycardia.
Diltiazem: Diltiazem and beta-receptor blockers have additive inhibitory effects on the AV-conduction and sinusnode function. Pronounced bradycardia has been observed (case reports) during combination treatment with diltiazem.
Epinephrine: There are about 10 reports on patients treated with nonselective beta-receptor blockers (including pindolol and propranolol) that developed pronounced hypertension and bradycardia after administration of epinephrine (adrenaline). These clinical observations have been confirmed in studies in healthy volunteers. It has also been suggested that epinephrine in local anaesthetics may provoke these reactions upon intravasal administration. The risk is probably less with cardioselective beta-receptor blockers.
Phenylpropanolamine: Phenylpropanolamine (norephedrine) in single doses of 50 mg may increase the diastolic blood pressure to pathological values in healthy volunteers. Propranolol generally counteracts the rise in blood pressure induced by phenylpropanolamine. However, beta-receptor blockers may provoke paradoxical hypertensive reactions in patients who take high doses of phenylpropranolamine. Hypertensive crisis during treatment with only phenylpropanolamine have been described in a couple of cases.
Quinidine: Quinidine inhibits the metabolism of Toprol in so-called rapid hydroxylators (>90% in Sweden) with markedly elevated plasma levels and enhanced beta-blockade as a result. A corresponding interaction might occur with other beta-blockers metabolised by the same enzyme (cytochrome P450 2D6).
Clonidine: The hypertensive reaction when clonidine is suddenly withdrawn may be potentiated by beta-blockers. If concomitant treatment with clonidine is to be discontinued, the beta-blocker medication should be withdrawn several days before clonidine.
Rifampicin: Rifampicin may induce the metabolism of Toprol resulting in decreased plasma levels.
Patients receiving concomitant treatment with other beta-blockers (ie, eye drops) or MAO Inhibitors should be kept under close surveillance. In patients receiving beta-receptor blocker therapy, inhalation anaesthetics enhance the cardio-depressant effect. The dosages of oral antidiabetics may have to be readjusted in patients receiving beta-blockers. The plasma concentration of Toprol can increase when cimetidine or hydralazine are administered simultaneously.
The following adverse reactions are described elsewhere in labeling:
Worsening angina or myocardial infarction.
Worsening heart failure.
Worsening AV block.
Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. The adverse reaction information from clinical trials does, however, provide a basis for identifying the adverse events that appear to be related to drug use and for approximating rates.
Hypertension and Angina: Most adverse reactions have been mild and transient. The most common (>2%) adverse reactions are tiredness, dizziness, depression, diarrhea, shortness of breath, bradycardia, and rash.
Heart Failure: In the MERIT-HF study comparing Toprol in daily doses up to 200 mg (mean dose 159 mg once-daily; n=1990) to placebo (n=2001), 10.3% of Toprol patients discontinued for adverse events vs. 12.2% of placebo patients.
The table below lists adverse reactions in the MERIT-HF study that occurred at an incidence of ≥ 1% in the Toprol group and greater than placebo by more than 0.5%, regardless of the assessment of causality.
Adverse Reactions Occurring in the MERIT-HF Study at an Incidence ≥ 1% in the Toprol Group and Greater Than Placebo by More Than 0.5%
n = 1990 % of patients
n = 2001 % of patients
Post-operative Adverse Events: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 8351 patients with or at risk for atherosclerotic disease undergoing non-vascular surgery and who were not taking beta–blocker therapy, Toprol 100 mg was started 2 to 4 hours prior to surgery then continued for 30 days at 200 mg per day. Toprol use was associated with a higher incidence of bradycardia (6.6% vs. 2.4%; HR, 2.74; 95% CI 2.19, 3.43), hypotension (15% vs. 9.7%; HR 1.55; 95% CI 1.37, 1.74), stroke (1% vs. 0.5%; HR 2.17; 95% CI 1.26, 3.74) and death (3.1% vs. 2.3%; HR 1.33; 95% CI 1.03, 1.74) compared to placebo.
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of extended-release Toprol or immediate-release Toprol. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Cardiovascular: Cold extremities, arterial insufficiency (usually of the Raynaud type), palpitations, peripheral edema, syncope, chest pain and hypotension.
Potential Adverse Reactions: In addition, there are adverse reactions not listed above that have been reported with other beta-adrenergic blocking agents and should be considered potential adverse reactions to Toprol.
Central Nervous System: Reversible mental depression progressing to catatonia; an acute reversible syndrome characterized by disorientation for time and place, short-term memory loss, emotional lability, clouded sensorium, and decreased performance on neuropsychometrics.
You should not use this medication if you are allergic to Toprol, or if you have a serious heart problem such as heart block, sick sinus syndrome, or slow heart rate.
Before taking Toprol, tell your doctor if you have congestive heart failure, low blood pressure, circulation problems, pheochromocytoma, asthma or other breathing problems, diabetes, depression, liver or kidney disease, a thyroid disorder, or severe allergies.
Toprol may impair your thinking or reactions. Be careful if you drive or do anything that requires you to be alert.
Drinking alcohol can increase certain side effects of Toprol.
Do not stop taking Toprol without first talking to your doctor. Stopping suddenly may make your condition worse.
If you need surgery, tell the surgeon ahead of time that you are using Toprol.
Toprol is only part of a complete program of treatment for hypertension that may also include diet, exercise, and weight control. Follow your diet, medication, and exercise routines very closely if you are being treated for hypertension.
If you are being treated for high blood pressure, keep using this medication even if you feel well. High blood pressure often has no symptoms. You may need to use blood pressure medication for the rest of your life.
DailyMed. "METOPROLOL FUMARATE: DailyMed provides trustworthy information about marketed drugs in the United States. DailyMed is the official provider of FDA label information (package inserts).". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailyme... (accessed September 17, 2018).
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