Vegaskine Actions

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Consists of Chlorphenamine, Paracetamol, Phenobarbital, Phenylpropanolamine

Actions of Chlorphenamine (Vegaskine) in details

infoThe action of the drug on the human body is called Pharmacodynamics in Medical terminology. To produce its effect and to change the pathological process that is happening the body and to reduce the symptom or cure the disease, the medicine has to function in a specific way. The changes it does to the body at cellular level gives the desired result of treating a disease. Drugs act by stimulating or inhibiting a receptor or an enzyme or a protein most of the times. Medications are produced in such a way that the ingredients target the specific site and bring about chemical changes in the body that can stop or reverse the chemical reaction which is causing the disease.
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Chlorphenamine (Vegaskine) Citadel Fine Pharmaceuticals is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial drug of fluoroquinolone group with bactericidal action. Inhibits DNA gyrase and inhibits the synthesis of bacterial DNA. Highly active against most gram-negative bacteria: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Haemophilus influenzae, Escherichia coli, Shigella spp., Salmonella spp., Neisseria meningitidis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

Chlorphenamine (Vegaskine) Citadel Fine Pharmaceuticals is active against Staphylococcus spp. (including strains producing and not producing penicillinase, methicillin-resistant strains), some strains of Enterococcus spp., Campylobacter spp., Legionella spp., Mycoplasma spp., Chlamydia spp., Mycobacterium spp.

ciprofloxacin is active against bacteria producing beta-lactamases.

Ureaplasma urealyticum, Clostridium difficile, Nocardia asteroides resistant to ciprofloxacin. The effect on Treponema pallidum is studied not enough.

How should I take Chlorphenamine (Vegaskine)?

This section provides information on the proper use of a number of products that contain cough and cold combinations. It may not be specific to Chlorphenamine (Vegaskine). Please read with care.

To help loosen mucus or phlegm in the lungs, drink a glass of water after each dose of this medicine, unless otherwise directed by your doctor.

Take this medicine only as directed. Do not take more of it and do not take it more often than recommended on the label, unless otherwise directed by your doctor. To do so may increase the chance of side effects.

Do not give any over-the-counter (OTC) cough and cold medicine to a baby or child under 4 years of age. Using these medicines in very young children might cause serious or possibly life-threatening side effects.

For patients taking the extended-release capsule or tablet form of this medicine:

  • Swallow the capsule or tablet whole.
  • Do not crush, break, or chew before swallowing.
  • If the capsule is too large to swallow, you may mix the contents of the capsule with applesauce, jelly, honey, or syrup and swallow without chewing.

For patients taking the extended-release oral solution or oral suspension form of this medicine:

  • Do not dilute with fluids or mix with other drugs.

For patients taking a combination medicine containing an antihistamine and/or aspirin or other salicylate:

  • Take with food or a glass of water or milk to lessen stomach irritation, if necessary.

If a combination medicine containing aspirin has a strong vinegar-like odor, do not use it. This odor means the medicine is breaking down. If you have any questions about this, check with your pharmacist.

Missed Dose

If you miss a dose of this medicine, take it as soon as possible. However, if it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not double doses.

Storage

Keep out of the reach of children.

Store the medicine in a closed container at room temperature, away from heat, moisture, and direct light. Keep from freezing.

Do not keep outdated medicine or medicine no longer needed.

Keep the liquid form of this medicine from freezing. Do not refrigerate the syrup.

Chlorphenamine (Vegaskine) administration

infoAdministration of drug is important to know because the drug absorption and action varies depending on the route and time of administration of the drug. A medicine is prescribed before meals or after meals or along with meals. The specific timing of the drug intake about food is to increase its absorption and thus its efficacy. Few work well when taken in empty stomach and few medications need to be taken 1 or 2 hrs after the meal. A drug can be in the form of a tablet, a capsule which is the oral route of administration and the same can be in IV form which is used in specific cases. Other forms of drug administration can be a suppository in anal route or an inhalation route.
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May be taken with or without food.

Chlorphenamine (Vegaskine) pharmacology

infoPharmacokinetics of a drug can be defined as what body does to the drug after it is taken. The therapeutic result of the medicine depends upon the Pharmacokinetics of the drug. It deals with the time taken for the drug to be absorbed, metabolized, the process and chemical reactions involved in metabolism and about the excretion of the drug. All these factors are essential to deciding on the efficacy of the drug. Based on these pharmacokinetic principles, the ingredients, the Pharmaceutical company decides dose and route of administration. The concentration of the drug at the site of action which is proportional to therapeutic result inside the body depends on various pharmacokinetic reactions that occur in the body.

Chlorphenamine (Vegaskine) AccuDial Pharmaceutical is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Bioavailability is 50%. Cmax is achieved after 20-40 min (in the greatest concentration is determined in the lungs, spleen, kidneys, liver, brain and muscles). Binding to plasma proteins - 98-99%. Penetrates through the BBB. Metabolised mainly in the liver, partly - in the lungs and kidneys. T1/2 is 4-10 hours. Within one day completely removed kidneys as metabolites conjugated to glucuronic acid. Significant quantities are derived from milk and can cause sedation in infants (may be a paradoxical reaction characterized by hyperexcitability).

Actions of Paracetamol (Vegaskine) in details

infoThe action of the drug on the human body is called Pharmacodynamics in Medical terminology. To produce its effect and to change the pathological process that is happening the body and to reduce the symptom or cure the disease, the medicine has to function in a specific way. The changes it does to the body at cellular level gives the desired result of treating a disease. Drugs act by stimulating or inhibiting a receptor or an enzyme or a protein most of the times. Medications are produced in such a way that the ingredients target the specific site and bring about chemical changes in the body that can stop or reverse the chemical reaction which is causing the disease.

Pharmacology: Pain is a very common experience and analgesic drugs such as Paracetamol (Vegaskine) plays an important role in providing general pain relief for both acute and chronic pain. Paracetamol (Vegaskine) is widely recommended as the initial drug of choice for the treatment of mild to moderate musculoskeletal pain and symptomatic osteoarthritis as it is regarded as having a more acceptable safety profile in chronic use than nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).

Paracetamol (Vegaskine) provides analgesic action via its inhibition activity on the central prostaglandin synthetase and its antipyretic action is thought to be due to selective inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis in the central nervous system (CNS).

Paracetamol (Vegaskine) is readily absorbed from the upper small intestine, has absolute oral bioavailability (70-90%) and is extensively metabolized in the liver.

Pharmacokinetics: Paracetamol (Vegaskine) formulation consists of a bilayer tablet containing 665 mg of Paracetamol (Vegaskine): One layer containing an immediate-release (IR) formulation and providing 31% of the total dose and a 2nd layer containing a sustained release (SR) formulation that provides the remaining 69% of the total dose.

Pharmacokinetics of Paracetamol (Vegaskine) have been investigated in 2 pivotal biostudies. In the First study, Paracetamol (Vegaskine) and Panadol tablets were compared in fed and fasted volunteers. Both were bioequivalent with respect to dose-corrected AUC(0-t) and AUC(0-inf) in both fed and fasted states. The bioavailability of Paracetamol (Vegaskine) from Paracetamol (Vegaskine) is not affected by food thus indicating that the formulation can be taken with or without food.

In the Second study, where Paracetamol (Vegaskine) was again compared with Panadol; Paracetamol (Vegaskine) showed a clear pattern of controlled release of Paracetamol (Vegaskine), and the formulations were bioequivalent based on the comparison of AUCs for the final 24 hours of the 48-hour dosing period. This shows that there is no additional accumulation of Paracetamol (Vegaskine) from the Paracetamol (Vegaskine) formulation. Besides that, steadier concentrations of Paracetamol (Vegaskine) were achieved with Paracetamol (Vegaskine). Thus, Paracetamol (Vegaskine) may be particularly appropriate for patients who require repeat doses as it maintains a continuous therapeutic effect when taken every 8 hours (2 x 665 mg tablets per dose).

How should I take Paracetamol (Vegaskine)?

Paracetamol (Vegaskine) is injected into a vein through an IV. You may be shown how to use an IV at home. Do not self-inject this medicine if you do not fully understand how to give the injection and properly dispose of used needles, IV tubing, and other items used to inject the medicine.

Be very careful when measuring your dose. This medicine contains 10 milligrams (mg) of acetaminophen in each milliliter (mL) of the solution. If your dose is 1000 mg, for example, you would use 100 mL of solution.

If you are using an infusion pump, take care to properly program the machine to deliver the correct amount of medicine for your dose.

Tell your doctor if you have any changes in weight while using this medicine. Lower doses are used in people who weigh less than 110 pounds (50 kilograms).

Do not use more of this medication than is recommended. An overdose of acetaminophen can damage your liver or cause death.

Paracetamol (Vegaskine) is usually given once every 4 to 6 hours. Follow your doctor's dosing instructions very carefully.

Each single use vial (bottle) of this medicine is for one use only. Throw away after one use, even if there is still some medicine left in it after injecting your dose.

Store Paracetamol (Vegaskine) at room temperature away from heat and moisture. Do not refrigerate or freeze.

You must use the medication within 6 hours after opening a vial.

Paracetamol (Vegaskine) administration

infoAdministration of drug is important to know because the drug absorption and action varies depending on the route and time of administration of the drug. A medicine is prescribed before meals or after meals or along with meals. The specific timing of the drug intake about food is to increase its absorption and thus its efficacy. Few work well when taken in empty stomach and few medications need to be taken 1 or 2 hrs after the meal. A drug can be in the form of a tablet, a capsule which is the oral route of administration and the same can be in IV form which is used in specific cases. Other forms of drug administration can be a suppository in anal route or an inhalation route.
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Acetaminophen injection is injected into a vein through an IV. You may be shown how to use an IV at home. Do not self-inject this medicine if you do not fully understand how to give the injection and properly dispose of used needles, IV tubing, and other items used to inject the medicine.

Do not use more of this medication than is recommended. An overdose of acetaminophen can damage your liver or cause death.

Acetaminophen injection is usually given once every 4 to 6 hours. Follow your doctor's dosing instructions very carefully.

Each single use vial (bottle) of this medicine is for one use only. Throw away after one use, even if there is still some medicine left in it after injecting your dose.

Store at room temperature away from heat and moisture. Do not refrigerate or freeze.

You must use the medication within 6 hours after opening a vial.

Paracetamol (Vegaskine) pharmacology

infoPharmacokinetics of a drug can be defined as what body does to the drug after it is taken. The therapeutic result of the medicine depends upon the Pharmacokinetics of the drug. It deals with the time taken for the drug to be absorbed, metabolized, the process and chemical reactions involved in metabolism and about the excretion of the drug. All these factors are essential to deciding on the efficacy of the drug. Based on these pharmacokinetic principles, the ingredients, the Pharmaceutical company decides dose and route of administration. The concentration of the drug at the site of action which is proportional to therapeutic result inside the body depends on various pharmacokinetic reactions that occur in the body.

Mechanism Of Action

The precise mechanism of the analgesic and antipyretic properties of acetaminophen is not established but is thought to primarily involve central actions.

Pharmacodynamics

Acetaminophen has been shown to have analgesic and antipyretic activities in animal and human studies.

Single doses of Paracetamol (Vegaskine) up to 3000 mg and repeated doses of 1000 mg every 6 hours for 48 hours have not been shown to cause a significant effect on platelet aggregation. Acetaminophen does not have any immediate or delayed effects on small-vessel hemostasis. Clinical studies of both healthy subjects and patients with hemophilia showed no significant changes in bleeding time after receiving multiple doses of oral acetaminophen.

Pharmacokinetics

Distribution

The pharmacokinetics of Paracetamol (Vegaskine) have been studied in patients and healthy subjects from premature neonates up to adults 60 years old. The pharmacokinetic profile of Paracetamol (Vegaskine) has been demonstrated to be dose proportional in adults following administration of single doses of 500, 650, and 1000 mg.

The maximum concentration (Cmax) occurs at the end of the 15 minute intravenous infusion of Paracetamol (Vegaskine). Compared to the same dose of oral acetaminophen, the Cmax following administration of Paracetamol (Vegaskine) is up to 70% higher, while overall exposure (area under the concentration time curve [AUC]) is very similar.

Pharmacokinetic parameters of Paracetamol (Vegaskine) (AUC, Cmax, terminal elimination half-life [T½], systemic clearance [CL], and volume of distribution at steady state [Vss]) following administration of a single intravenous dose of 15 mg/kg for the pediatric population and 1000 mg in adults are summarized in Table 4.

Table 4: Paracetamol (Vegaskine) Pharmacokinetic Parameters

Pediatric Acute Pain And Fever

Paracetamol (Vegaskine) was studied in 355 pediatric patients in two active-controlled and three open-label safety and pharmacokinetic trials.

Actions of Phenobarbital (Vegaskine) in details

infoThe action of the drug on the human body is called Pharmacodynamics in Medical terminology. To produce its effect and to change the pathological process that is happening the body and to reduce the symptom or cure the disease, the medicine has to function in a specific way. The changes it does to the body at cellular level gives the desired result of treating a disease. Drugs act by stimulating or inhibiting a receptor or an enzyme or a protein most of the times. Medications are produced in such a way that the ingredients target the specific site and bring about chemical changes in the body that can stop or reverse the chemical reaction which is causing the disease.
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Rhea Phenobarbital (Vegaskine) is an anticonvulsant, hypnotic, sedative drug. This medication is a long-acting barbiturate. It is believed that the effects of Phenobarbital (Vegaskine), like other barbiturates, due to the ability to increase and / or mimic the inhibitory effect of GABA on synaptic transmission. Sedative-hypnotic effect due to the suppression of sensory cortex, decrease motor activity, changes in the functional state of the brain. Although the mechanism of action is not fully installed, Phenobarbital (Vegaskine), like other barbiturates apparently is particularly active at the level of the thalamus, which suppresses the rising holding in the reticular formation, thereby preventing transmission of impulses in the cerebral cortex. Anticonvulsant effect is due to suppression of the monosynaptic and polysynaptic transmission in the CNS.

Rhea Phenobarbital (Vegaskine) causes a dose-dependent respiratory depression.

Phenobarbital (Vegaskine) reduces the concentration of serum bilirubin.

Like other barbiturates, this medicine contributes to the induction of microsomal liver enzymes, thereby enhancing or altering the metabolism of other drugs.

How should I take Phenobarbital (Vegaskine)?

Take exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Do not take in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended. Follow the directions on your prescription label.

Take this medicine with a full glass of water.

If you are taking this medicine to treat insomnia, take it only at bedtime. Do not use Phenobarbital (Vegaskine) for longer than 2 weeks to treat insomnia, unless your doctor has told you to.

Take Phenobarbital (Vegaskine) only when you are getting ready for several hours of sleep. You may fall asleep very quickly after taking the medicine.

Do not change your dose of Phenobarbital (Vegaskine) without your doctor's advice. Tell your doctor if the medication does not seem to work as well in treating your condition.

If you are taking Phenobarbital (Vegaskine) to treat seizures, keep taking the medication even if you feel fine. You may have increased seizures or withdrawal symptoms if you stop using Phenobarbital (Vegaskine) suddenly. You will need to use less and less before you stop the medication completely.

If you use this medication long-term, your blood will need to be tested often. Visit your doctor regularly.

Store at room temperature away from moisture and heat.

Keep track of the amount of medicine used from each new bottle. Phenobarbital (Vegaskine) is a drug of abuse and you should be aware if anyone is using your medicine improperly or without a prescription.

Phenobarbital (Vegaskine) administration

infoAdministration of drug is important to know because the drug absorption and action varies depending on the route and time of administration of the drug. A medicine is prescribed before meals or after meals or along with meals. The specific timing of the drug intake about food is to increase its absorption and thus its efficacy. Few work well when taken in empty stomach and few medications need to be taken 1 or 2 hrs after the meal. A drug can be in the form of a tablet, a capsule which is the oral route of administration and the same can be in IV form which is used in specific cases. Other forms of drug administration can be a suppository in anal route or an inhalation route.

Take exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Do not take in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended. Follow the directions on your prescription label.

Take this medicine with a full glass of water.

If you are taking this medicine to treat insomnia, take it only at bedtime. Do not use Phenobarbital (Vegaskine) for longer than 2 weeks to treat insomnia, unless your doctor has told you to.

Take Phenobarbital (Vegaskine) only when you are getting ready for several hours of sleep. You may fall asleep very quickly after taking the medicine.

Do not change your dose of Phenobarbital (Vegaskine) without your doctor's advice. Tell your doctor if the medication does not seem to work as well in treating your condition.

If you are taking Phenobarbital (Vegaskine) to treat seizures, keep taking the medication even if you feel fine. You may have increased seizures or withdrawal symptoms if you stop using Phenobarbital (Vegaskine) suddenly. You will need to use less and less before you stop the medication completely.

If you use this medication long-term, your blood will need to be tested often. Visit your doctor regularly.

Store at room temperature away from moisture and heat.

Keep track of the amount of medicine used from each new bottle. Phenobarbital (Vegaskine) is a drug of abuse and you should be aware if anyone is using your medicine improperly or without a prescription.

Phenobarbital (Vegaskine) pharmacology

infoPharmacokinetics of a drug can be defined as what body does to the drug after it is taken. The therapeutic result of the medicine depends upon the Pharmacokinetics of the drug. It deals with the time taken for the drug to be absorbed, metabolized, the process and chemical reactions involved in metabolism and about the excretion of the drug. All these factors are essential to deciding on the efficacy of the drug. Based on these pharmacokinetic principles, the ingredients, the Pharmaceutical company decides dose and route of administration. The concentration of the drug at the site of action which is proportional to therapeutic result inside the body depends on various pharmacokinetic reactions that occur in the body.

Phenobarbital (Vegaskine) is capable of producing all levels of CNS mood alteration, from excitation to mild sedation to hypnosis, and deep coma. Overdosage can produce death. In high enough therapeutic doses, Phenobarbital (Vegaskine) induces anesthesia. Phenobarbital (Vegaskine) depresses the sensory cortex, decreases motor activity, alters cerebellar function, and produces drowsiness, sedation, and hypnosis. Phenobarbital (Vegaskine)-induced sleep differs from physiological sleep. Sleep laboratory studies have demonstrated that Phenobarbital (Vegaskine) reduces the amount of time spent in the rapid eye movement (REM) phase of sleep or the dreaming stage. Also Stages III and IV sleep are decreased. Following abrupt cessation of Phenobarbital (Vegaskine) used regularly, patients may experience markedly increased dreaming, nightmares and/or insomnia. Therefore, withdrawal of a single therapeutic dose over 5 or 6 days has been recommended to lessen the REM rebound and disturbed sleep which contribute to drug withdrawal syndrome (for example, decrease the dose from 3 to 2 doses a day for 1 week).

Phenobarbital (Vegaskine) might be expected to lose its effectiveness for inducing and maintaining sleep after about 2 weeks.

Phenobarbital (Vegaskine) has little analgesic action at subanesthetic doses. Rather, in subanesthetic doses, this drug may increase the reaction to painful stimuli. All barbiturates exhibit anticonvulsant activity in anesthetic doses. However, of the drugs in this class, only Phenobarbital (Vegaskine), mephobarbital, and metharbital are effective as oral anticonvulsants in subhypnotic doses.

Phenobarbital (Vegaskine) is a respiratory depressant. The degree of respiratory depression is dependent upon the dose. With hypnotic doses, respiratory depression produced by Phenobarbital (Vegaskine) is similar to that which occurs during physiologic sleep with slight decrease in blood pressure and heart rate. Studies in laboratory animals have shown that Phenobarbital (Vegaskine) causes reduction in the tone and contractility of the uterus, ureters, and urinary bladder. However, concentrations of the drug required to produce this effect in humans are not reached with sedative-hypnotic doses.

Phenobarbital (Vegaskine) does not impair normal hepatic function but has been shown to induce liver microsomal enzymes, thus increasing and/or altering the metabolism of barbiturates and other drugs.

Pharmacokinetics

Phenobarbital (Vegaskine) is absorbed in varying degrees following oral, rectal or parenteral administration. The salts are more rapidly absorbed than are the acids. The rate of absorption is increased if the sodium salt is ingested as a dilute solution or taken on an empty stomach.

Duration of action, which is related to the rate at which Phenobarbital (Vegaskine) is redistributed throughout the body varies among persons and in the same person from time to time. Long-acting Phenobarbital (Vegaskine) has onset of action of 1 hour or longer and duration of actions of 10 to 12 hours.

No studies have demonstrated that the different routes of administration are equivalent with respect to bioavailability.

Phenobarbital (Vegaskine) is a weak acid that is absorbed and rapidly distributed to all tissues and fluids with high concentrations in the brain, liver, and kidneys. The more lipid soluble the drug is, the more rapidly it penetrates all tissues of the body.

Phenobarbital (Vegaskine) has the lowest lipid solubility, lowest plasma binding, lowest brain protein binding, the longest delay in onset of activity, and the longest duration of action in the barbiturate class.

Phenobarbital (Vegaskine) has a plasma half-life of 53 to 118 hours (mean: 79 hours). For children and newborns the plasma half-life is 60 to 180 hours (mean: 110 hours). (Half-life values were determined for newborn age being defined as 48 hours or less.)

Phenobarbital (Vegaskine) is metabolized primarily by the hepatic microsomal enzyme system, and the metabolic products are excreted in the urine, and less commonly, in the feces. Approximately 25 to 50 percent of a dose of Phenobarbital (Vegaskine) is eliminated unchanged in the urine, whereas the amount of other barbiturates excreted unchanged in the urine is negligible. The excretion of unmetabolized barbiturate is one feature that distinguishes the long-acting category from those belonging to other categories which are almost entirely metabolized. The inactive metabolites of the barbiturates are excreted as conjugates of glucuronic acid.

Actions of Phenylpropanolamine (Vegaskine) in details

infoThe action of the drug on the human body is called Pharmacodynamics in Medical terminology. To produce its effect and to change the pathological process that is happening the body and to reduce the symptom or cure the disease, the medicine has to function in a specific way. The changes it does to the body at cellular level gives the desired result of treating a disease. Drugs act by stimulating or inhibiting a receptor or an enzyme or a protein most of the times. Medications are produced in such a way that the ingredients target the specific site and bring about chemical changes in the body that can stop or reverse the chemical reaction which is causing the disease.

Description: Phenylpropanolamine (Vegaskine) is an indirect acting sympathomimetic, often used orally as the HCl salt for nasal congestion. It has been withdrawn in several countries due to increased risk of haemorrhagic strokes.

Pharmacokinetics:

Absorption: Readily and completely absorbed from GI tract. Time to peak plasma concentration: 1-2 hr.

Metabolism: Undergoes partial hepatic metabolism.

Excretion: Via urine 80-90% (unchanged). Half-life: Approx 3-5 hr.

How should I take Phenylpropanolamine (Vegaskine)?

infoAdministration of drug is important to know because the drug absorption and action varies depending on the route and time of administration of the drug. A medicine is prescribed before meals or after meals or along with meals. The specific timing of the drug intake about food is to increase its absorption and thus its efficacy. Few work well when taken in empty stomach and few medications need to be taken 1 or 2 hrs after the meal. A drug can be in the form of a tablet, a capsule which is the oral route of administration and the same can be in IV form which is used in specific cases. Other forms of drug administration can be a suppository in anal route or an inhalation route.

Take Phenylpropanolamine (Vegaskine) exactly as directed by your doctor, or follow the instructions that accompany the package. If you do not understand these directions, ask your pharmacist, nurse, or doctor to explain them to you.

Take each dose with a full glass of water.

Never take this medication in larger doses or more often than is recommended. Too much Phenylpropanolamine (Vegaskine) could be very harmful.

If your symptoms are accompanied by a high fever, or if they do not improve in 7 days, see your doctor.

Store Phenylpropanolamine (Vegaskine) at room temperature away from moisture and heat.

Phenylpropanolamine (Vegaskine) pharmacology

infoPharmacokinetics of a drug can be defined as what body does to the drug after it is taken. The therapeutic result of the medicine depends upon the Pharmacokinetics of the drug. It deals with the time taken for the drug to be absorbed, metabolized, the process and chemical reactions involved in metabolism and about the excretion of the drug. All these factors are essential to deciding on the efficacy of the drug. Based on these pharmacokinetic principles, the ingredients, the Pharmaceutical company decides dose and route of administration. The concentration of the drug at the site of action which is proportional to therapeutic result inside the body depends on various pharmacokinetic reactions that occur in the body.

Phenylpropanolamine (Vegaskine) (PPA), a sympathomimetic agent structurally similar to pseudoephedrine, is used to treat nasal congestion. Phenylpropanolamine (Vegaskine) is found in appetite suppressant formulations and with guaifenesinin in cough-cold formulations. In 2000, the FDA requested that all drug companies discontinue marketing products containing Phenylpropanolamine (Vegaskine), due to an increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke in women who used Phenylpropanolamine (Vegaskine).

References

  1. NCIt. "Phenobarbital: NCI Thesaurus (NCIt) provides reference terminology for many systems. It covers vocabulary for clinical care, translational and basic research, and public information and administrative activities.". https://ncit.nci.nih.gov/ncitbrowser... (accessed September 17, 2018).
  2. EPA DSStox. "Phenobarbital: DSSTox provides a high quality public chemistry resource for supporting improved predictive toxicology.". https://comptox.epa.gov/dashboard/ds... (accessed September 17, 2018).

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