Vit A Uses

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Vit A indications

An indication is a term used for the list of condition or symptom or illness for which the medicine is prescribed or used by the patient. For example, acetaminophen or paracetamol is used for fever by the patient, or the doctor prescribes it for a headache or body pains. Now fever, headache and body pains are the indications of paracetamol. A patient should be aware of the indications of medications used for common conditions because they can be taken over the counter in the pharmacy meaning without prescription by the Physician.
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Tetracycline hydrochloride is indicated for the treatment of the following infections:

Rocky Mountain spotted fever, typhus fever and the typhus group, Q fever, rickettsial pox and tick fever caused by Rickettsiae.

Respiratory tract infections caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae

Lymphogranuloma venereum caused by Chlamydia trachomatis

Psittacosis and ornithosis due to Chlamydia psittaci

Trachoma caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, although the infectious agent is not always eliminated, as judged by immuno- fluorescence

Inclusion conjunctivitis caused by Chlamydia trachomatis

Tetracycline hydrochloride is indicated for the treatment of uncomplicated urethral, endocervical or rectal infections in adults caused by Chlamydia trachomatis

Nongonococcal urethritis caused by Ureaplasma urealyticum Relapsing fever due to Borrelia recurrentis

Tetracycline hydrochloride is also indicated for the treatment of infections caused by the following gram-negative microorganisms:

Chancroid caused by Haemophilus ducreyi

Plague due to Yersinia pestis (formerly Pasteurella pestis)

Tularemia due to Francisella tularensis (formerly Pasteurella tularensis)

Cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae (formerly Vibrio comma)

Campylobacter fetus infections caused by Campylobacter fetus (formerly Vibrio fetus)

Brucellosis due to Brucella species (in conjunction with streptomycin)

Bartonellosis due to Bartonella bacilliformis

Granuloma inguinale caused by Calymmatobacterium granulomatis

Because many strains of the following groups of microorganisms have been shown to be resistant to tetracycline hydrochloride, culture and susceptibility testing are recommended.

Tetracycline hydrochloride is indicated for treatment of infections caused by the following gram-negative microorganisms, when bacteriologic testing indicates appropriate susceptibility to the drug:

Escherichia coli

Enterobacter aerogenes (formerly Aerobacter aerogenes)

Shigella species

Acinetobacter species [formerly Mima species and Herellea species]

Respiratory tract infections caused by Haemophilus influenzae

Respiratory tract and urinary tract infections caused by Klebsiella species

Tetracycline hydrochloride is indicated for treatment of infections caused by the following gram-positive microorganisms when bacteriologic testing indicated appropriate susceptibility to the drug:

For upper respiratory infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (formerly Diplococcus pneumoniae)

Skin and skin structure infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Tetracyclines are not the drugs of choice in the treatment of any type of staphylococcal infections

When penicillin is contraindicated, tetracycline hydrochloride is an alternative drug in the treatment of the following infections:

Uncomplicated gonorrhea caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Syphilis caused by Treponema pallidum

Yaws caused by Treponema pertenue

Listeriosis due to Listeria monocytogenes

Anthrax due to Bacillus anthracis

Vincent’s infection caused by Fusobacterium fusiforme

Actinomycosis caused by Actinomyces israelii

Infections caused by Clostridia species

In acute intestinal amebiasis, the tetracycline hydrochlorides may be a useful adjunctive therapy to amebicides.

In severe acne the tetracycline hydrochlorides may be useful ad- junctive therapy.

Vit A description

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Vit A and derivatives of Vit A that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of carotenoids found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.

Vit A dosage

Oral

Vitamin A deficiency

Adult: For severe deficiency with corneal changes: 500,000 units daily for 3 days, followed by 50,000 units daily for 2 wk and then 10,000-20,000 units daily for 2 mth as follow-up therapy. For cases with corneal changes: 10,000-25,000 units daily until clinical improvement occurs (usually 1-2 wk).

Child: In children with xerophthalmia: 5000 units/kg daily for 5 days or until recovery occurs.

Intramuscular

Patients with biliary cirrhosis or chronic cholestatic liver disease

Adult: 100,000 units every 2-4 mth.

Topical/Cutaneous

Psoriasis; Acne

Adult: Apply as cream or ointment on affected areas.

Vit A interactions

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High doses of vitamin E, vitamin A reduces the absorption. Vit A, multivitamin preparations containing vitamin A should not be used simultaneously

Vit A side effects

Excessive doses of vitamin A to be the result of the symptoms are summarized as follows: - Acute hipervitaminöz A: Headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, weakness, infants fontanel swelling (Maria-see syndrome), adult brain pseudotumor, called benign intracranial hypertension in the form of intracranial an increase in pressure. - Chronic hipervitaminöz A: General Painting: Fatigue, lethargy, sleep disorders, mental disorders, hiperirritabilite, headache, anorexia, nausea and vomiting. Blood: The nose bleeding, rarely hypoprothrombinemia. Eye: Papilledema, the double vision. Skin and mucous membranes: epithelial tissue loss, itching, hair loss, skin dryness, lips cracking, Internal Organs: Hepatomegaly and more rare splenomegaly, Genital Organs: Menstrual disorders (very rare). Skeletal System: Bone and joint pain, cortical hiperostoz long bones, premature closure of epiphysis in children.

Vit A contraindications

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The intravenous administration. Hypervitaminosis A. Sensitivity to any of the ingredients in this preparation. Use in Pregnancy: Safety of amounts exceeding 6,000 Units of vitamin A daily during pregnancy has not been established at this time. The use of vitamin A in excess of the recommended dietary allowance may cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Animal reproduction studies have shown fetal abnormalities associated with overdosage in several species. Malformations of the central nervous system, the eye, the palate, and the urogenital tract are recorded. Vit A in excess of the recommended dietary allowance is contraindicated in women who are or may become pregnant. If vitamin A is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking vitamin A, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus.

Active ingredient matches for Vit A:

Retinol in Oman.


List of Vit A substitutes (brand and generic names)

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Unit description / dosage (Manufacturer)Price, USD
Vita A 5000 IU/1 g x 3.5 g
Ointment; Ophthalmic; Vitamin A / Retinol Palmitate 250 IU / g (Ursapharm)
Solution; Ophthalmic; Vitamin A / Retinol Palmitate 250 IU / g (Ursapharm)
Drops; Oral; Vitamin A / Vitamin A Palmitate (Wernigerode)
Drops; Ophthalmic; Vitamin A / Vitamin A Palmitate (Mann)
Gel; Ophthalmic; Vitamin A / Vitamin A Palmitate (Mann)
Vitamin A - Egis 50000 IU x 20 Tablet x 25 Blister
Vitamin A Atlantic 25000 IU x 1, 000's
Ointment; Ophthalmic; Vitamin A / Retinol Palmitate 15, 000 IU / g
Vitamin A IPI 6000 IU x 50's$ 0.29
Vitamin A Kimia Farma 6000 IU x 100's$ 0.71
Vitamin A Kimia Farma 20000 IU x 100's$ 1.29
Vitamin A Kimia Farma 50000 IU x 100's$ 2.58
Vitamin A Patar 25000 IU x 12 x 100's
Vitamin A Patar 25000 IU x 1000's
Ointment; Ophthalmic; Vitamin A / Retinol
50000 IU x 10's (AHPL)$ 0.11
VITAMIN-A / AHPL chewable tab 50000 IU x 10's (AHPL)$ 0.10
Capsule; Oral; Vitamin A
Capsule; Oral; Vitamin A / Retinol

References

  1. DailyMed. "ASCORBIC ACID; BIOTIN; CYANOCOBALAMIN; DEXPANTHENOL; ERGOCALCIFEROL; FOLIC ACID; NIACINAMIDE; PHYTONADIONE; PYRIDOXINE HYDROCHLORIDE; RIBOFLAVIN 5'-PHOSPHATE SODIUM; THIAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE; VITAMIN A; VITAMIN E: DailyMed provides trustworthy information about marketed drugs in the United States. DailyMed is the official provider of FDA label information (package inserts).". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailyme... (accessed September 17, 2018).
  2. PubChem. "retinol". https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/com... (accessed September 17, 2018).
  3. DrugBank. "retinol". http://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00162 (accessed September 17, 2018).

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Information checked by Dr. Sachin Kumar, MD Pharmacology

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